@Dinaflo: Look at Camp America for yourself. Gives you a summer job in the hotel industry as long as you are a student enrolled in university.
yeah volunteer work is possible, but it doesnt bring much money (if any at all) and to live in europe for a year has to be financed somehow, hence me asking about work permissions etc.
If you wanted to live in the USA for a year you'd have the same problem. You'd have to survive for a year without making any money, living off your savings.
The only solution is to work while you are at home and save, save, save.
One more tip for your friend: US citizens can work visafree on US Armed Forces bases in Europe. Especially personnel with medical qualifications is quite in demand. We have a TP member here who asked the same question as you did about 1 1/2 years ago. In August this year she got a job in a US Army hospital in Germany.