Amapá is a state in the north of Brazil, bordering French Guiana to the north. It is the second least populous state and the eighteenth largest by area. In the colonial period the region was called Portuguese Guiana and was part of Portugal's State of Brazil. Later, the region was distinguished from the other Guianas. Amapá was once part of Pará, but became a separate territory in 1943, and a state in 1990.
The dominant feature of the region, and 90 percent of its total area, is the Amazon Rainforest. Unexplored forests occupy 70 percent of Amapá, and Tumucumaque National Park, established in 2002, is the largest tropical forest park in the world. The estuary of the River Oiapoque, once considered the northernmost point of Brazil, is along the Atlantic Ocean coast at the north of the state.
Located in the far northern part of the country, Amapá is bordered clockwise by French Guiana to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Pará to the south and west, and Suriname to the northwest. The State of Amapá possesses the lowest rate of loss of its original vegetation for any Brazilian state, estimated at only 2%. Most of the Amapá territory is covered with rainforest, while the remaining areas are covered with savannah and plains. On the Amapá coast, almost intact beaches mix with swamps, creating the largest representation of this biome in Brazil. This mixture of salt and fresh water is perfect for the food chain reproduction for several animal species. Pollution, however, is now a chronic problem in the state of Amapá. Mercury, which is used in the extraction of gold, is widely found in water sources and sewage systems in the population centers of Amapá
The state has a tropical climate with high temperatures and rainfall year-round.
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