The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland.
Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of İskenderun and the Black Sea, or to what is historically known as the Armenian Highlands (Armenia Major). This region is now largely situated in the Eastern Anatolia region of the far north east of Turkey and converges with the Lesser Caucasus - an area that was incorporated in the Russian Empire region of Transcaucasia in the 19th century. Thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. However, since the declaration of the Turkish Republic in 1923, Anatolia is often considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, which comprises almost the entire country, its eastern and southeastern borders are widely taken to be the Turkish borders with neighbouring Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, in clockwise direction.
Anatolia has a varied range of climates. The central plateau is characterized by a continental climate, with hot summers and cold snowy winters. The south and west coasts enjoy a typical Mediterranean climate, with mild rainy winters, and warm dry summers. The Black Sea and Marmara coasts have temperate oceanic climate, with cool foggy summers and much rainfall throughout the year.
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