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Belgium

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Travel Guide Europe Belgium

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Introduction

St. Hubert gallery

St. Hubert gallery

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Small, quiet and unassuming, Belgium has everything its popular neighbours have, but goes relatively unnoticed by many travellers. Its extraordinary artistic heritage puts it on the map for art-lovers, but the country's delights extend well beyond the artistic realm. Cities such as Bruges and Ghent harken back centuries, retaining much of their medieval architecture and providing visitors with a fascinating step back in time. Brussels is the proud capital, not only of Belgium, but also of the European Union, and despite the rather deadening effect of dozens of bureaucrats bustling along its streets, Brussels' central square, the Grand Place, is a sensational highlight which should not be missed by any visitor to Belgium. And of course, while there, one should also not miss out on Belgium's fine choice of beers, chocolate and gourmet foods.

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Brief History

For a long time the history of the Netherlands and Belgium went hand in hand. But in 1830 Catholic Belgium declared its independence over the mainly Protestant Netherlands. A year later Leopold I, became the first King of Belgium. In the beginning French was the only official language in this new country, mainly because it was the language of the ruling class, but during the years Dutch gained in importance. In 1898 Dutch became an official language in Belgium, but it lasted until 1967 until the constitution was written down in Dutch.

In 1914 Germany invaded Belgium, and many black pages would be written in the historybooks over the next 4 years. A lot of the fighting during World War I would occur in the western part of Belgium. After World War I, Belgium was compensated by adding pieces of Germany to Belgium, creating the East Kantons, where you will now find the German speaking minority of Belgium that speak German, which is Belgiums third officail language.

In 1940 World War II meant that Belgium again was invaded by German troops. This time the initial war was over quickly, leaving the country occupied for over 4 years. In the months after D-Day Belgium was liberated for the largest part.

After the war Belgium was one of the founding members of what would become the European Union, and it joined NATO. Brussels became the headquarters of the EU. During the years a couple of Belgian politians had a lot of influence in both organisation. Paul-Henri Spaak and Willy Claes became Secretary General of NATO, and in 2009 Herman van Rompuy became the first "President" of the European Union.

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Geography

Belgium shares borders with France (620 kilometres), Germany (167 kilometres), Luxembourg (148 kilometres) and the Netherlands (450 kilometres). Its total area, including surface water area, is 33,990 square kilometres; land area alone is 30,528 km2. It lies between latitudes 49° and 53° N, and longitudes 2° and 7° E.

The defining feature of the the country is it flatness, although it is not as flat as its northern neighbour. The coastal plain consists mainly of sand dunes and polders. Further inland lies a smooth, slowly rising landscape irrigated by numerous waterways, with fertile valleys and the northeastern sandy plain of the Campine (Kempen). The thickly forested hills and plateaux of the Ardennes are more rugged and rocky with caves and small gorges. Extending westward into France, this area is eastwardly connected to the Eifel in Germany by the High Fens plateau, on which the Signal de Botrange forms the country's highest point at 694 metres. A handy tower allows you to climb an extra 6 metres and attain the lofty height of 700 metres.

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Regions

Belgium is officially divided into three regions, the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.

The Flemish Region (or Flanders) is in the northern part of Belgium, where Dutch is the spoken language. The Walloon Region (or Wallonia) is the southern part of the country, where French is the main language. Both of these regions are subdivided into 5 provinces.

The special Brussels-Capital Region is bi-lingual (Dutch and French) and is located within the Flemish Region.

Flemish Region

Walloon Region (or Wallonia)

  • Walloon Brabant
  • Hainaut
  • Namur Province
  • Liège Province
  • Luxembourg

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Cities

  • Brussels (French: Bruxelles, Dutch: Brussel, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium as well as the administrative centre of the European Union.
  • Antwerp (Dutch: Antwerpen, French: Anvers)
  • Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich, Walloon: Lidje)
  • Bruges (Dutch: Brugge)
  • Ghent (Dutch: Gent)
  • Ostend (Dutch: Oostende)
  • Charleroi (Walloon: Tchålerwè)
  • Leuven (French: Louvain, German: Löwen)
  • Namur (Dutch: Namen)
  • Ypres (Dutch: Ieper), mainly known for the battles in WW-I.
  • Mechelen
  • Aalst
  • Kortrijk
  • Sint-Niklaas

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Sights and Activities

Manneken Pis

brussels 003

brussels 003

© All Rights Reserved ErinDriver

The small guy that everybody recognizes as the landmark of Brussels was placed here in 1619, and crafted by Jerome Duquesnoy. It replaced a statue that had stood on the same place, with a similar statue that was made of stone, and that had stood there since the middle ages. The statue can be found on the crossing of the Stoofstraat and the Eikstraat (or in French: Rue de l'Étuve and Rue du Chêne).

Tournai

Tournai is mostly famous because of the Notre-Dame Cathedral, which is on the Unesco World Heritage List. It was built in the first half of the 12th century and is of significance because of its Romanesque nave of impressive dimensions. It also has a wealth of sculptures on its capitals and a transept topped by five towers. These all represent the Gothic style, just like the choir, which was rebuilt in the 13th century.

Coastline

Oostende Beach

Oostende Beach

© All Rights Reserved steff

Although Belgium has only a short coastline and the weather may not be the same as in Southern Europe, there are some fantastic places to spend a day or so. The beaches are long with fine sand and the waters are safe and clean enough to swim in. The most visited towns and cities are Blankenberghe, Knokke-Heist, Ostebd and De Panne, although there are several more. Along the coast there is a tramline, which almost travels the entire length and the boulevards along the beaches are dotted with hotels, appartments and restaurants. Most people who visit these places are from the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and France.

Ardennes

The Ardennes are the higher forested areas in the east of the country in Wallone. They also stretch into Luxemburg and northern France though. Most of the area is between 350 and 500 metres high, with the highest point almost being 700 metres in the northeast towards the borders with Germany, where it joins the Eifel Mountains. Forests, rocks, waterfalls, rivers, there are many great things to explore including some fine small towns, with abbeys, castles and other ancient buildings. It is a popular place to go kayaking, biking, hiking or just explore the large area by car.

Other sights and activities

  • City centres - Belgium has several of the most beautiful cities in Western Europe, including those of Ghent, Brugge, Antwerp and Brussels. La Grande Place in Brussels and the historic centre of Brugge are both on the UNESCO list. Other smaller examples are Leuven and Turnhout.
  • Namur Citadel - Namur
  • Beer! - Belgium has several of the best specials beers in the world, including Duvel and Leffe. Try a few each day.

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Events and Festivals

Music Festivals

Belgian a country of music lovers. Every city or town has its own musicfestival. Rock Werchter is the biggest festival together with Pukkelpop. These have an international line up and draw tens of thousands of visitors to Werchter and Kiewit, a small town near Hasselt. There are also a couple of festivals that take place in the cities, like the Gentse Feesten, Marktrock in Leuven and the Cactus Festival in Bruges.

Tomorrowland

Tomorrowland is an outdoor dancing event (festival) organized every year in the Flemish town of Boom since 2005. Famous DJ's that have been performing during the festival, held late July, are Fedde le Grande, Ferry Corsten, Armin van Buuren, DJ Tiësto, Carl Cox, Swedish House Maffia, Afrojack, Faithless and David Guetta. The festival is organized by ID&T, the same company behind the succes of the Dutch Mysteryland since 1993. There are different music styles with jump, groove, club and hardstyle being the most important ones. There are both campingfestivals as well as the main festival. If you stay on the camping grounds, you can also go to the campingfestival. Tomorrowland finishes with huge fireworks. The festival is gaining in popularity every year and starting with just one day in 2005, it extended into two days from 2007 and three days from 2011 onwards.

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Weather

Belgium has a mild climate with almost no extremes. Summers are relatively cool with average daytime temperatures around 20 °C, although temperatures of 35 °C are not impossible on some days and they can vary from one place to another. The coastal areas will generally not have temperatures over 30 °C, while more inland it can be 5 °C to 10 °C warmer. The higher parts in the east are a bit cooler during summer nights.
Winters, on the other hand, are mild, and temperatures below 0 °C during the day do not occur that often. A snow carpet lasting for more than a few days is relatively rare, except in the Ardennes region in the east where the higher parts might be white for days, if not weeks.
The best months to travel around Belgium are probably May and June, when days are long and apart from occasional showers, rainfall is lowest. September is fairly good as well, although days are shorter. July and August can be good, if it weren't for the crowds on some places.

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Getting There

By Plane

Brussels Airport (BRU) is the primary international airport. It is located in the small town of Zaventem, near Brussels. It deals primarily with flights from and to European cities, although a number of African and Middle Eastern cities are serviced and Jet Airways provides flights from India and the USA.

The second major airport is Brussels South Charleroi Airport (CRL), which is used primarily for Ryanair flights. There are smaller international airports at Antwerp, Liège and Ostend. The latter two are primarily used for charter flights.

By Train

There are many options if you want to travel to Belgium by train. The main hub is Brussels, from where trains leave in all directions, including direct trains to London, Paris and Amsterdam and even as far as Moscow!

For travelling from London check the Eurostar website for details, including connections to Paris. And remember that this ticket is valid to all other Belgian cities for the same price as Brussels if travelling within 24 hours of your Eurostar trip.

The Thalys has connections to Amsterdam, Paris and Cologne. From Brussels with the TGV you can travel further south to Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille and Nice, some of them directly. Sometimes it is cheaper to go to Lille first, and connect there to the TGV southwards.

The ICE connects Brussels with German cities like Frankfurt and Cologne.
Check the Deutch Bahn Timetable for all other destinations further away in Europe.

By Car

There are many roads including major European highways that link Belgium with France, the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. The most important ones are (E numbers are generally used):

  • The A1/E19 Brussels - Mechelen - Antwerp - Netherlands (Breda)
  • The A3/E40 Brussels - Leuven - Liège - Germany (Aachen)
  • The A4/E411 Brussels - Namur - Arlon - Luxembourg (Luxembourg (city)
  • The A14/E17 Antwerp - Sint-Niklaas - Ghent - Kortrijk - France (Lille)

By Bus

Eurolines offers connections throughout Europe from Brussels with regular connections in Antwerp and Liege.

By Boat

There are a few connections by ferry.
United Kingdom

  • Superfast Ferries has overnight ferries service 3 times a week from Rosyth (Scotland) to Zeebrugge (arrive 11:30 next day).
  • P&O Ferries offers daily overnight ships between Hull (England) and Zeebrugge as well.

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Getting Around

By Plane

As distances are small, there are no regular passanger flights between cities in Belgium.

By Train

Belgium has an extensive train network. Check the NMBS website for information about connections, prices and other details.

There is also an enjoyable Coastal Tramline (Dutch only).

By Car

Belgium has a well lit Highway Network. That said, compared to its neighbours roads are slightly less maintained and more fatal accidents happen as well. Also, signs are sometimes placed in wrong positions. But generally though it is a fairly safe and enjoyable way of getting around. Most international agencies offer rental cars at airports or their downtown offices. Hertz and Avis, as well as Budget are safe options.

By Bus

De Lijn (Dutch only) in Flanders and TEC in Wallonia offer regional bus connections, but generally trains are much more comfortable, enjoyable and compatitively priced.

By Boat

There is not really a need to travel around by boat, other than some some short trips within cities like Bruges or crossing the Schelde River in Antwerp. Also, there are no regular ferries linking the ports in Belgium as most transport is by the coastal tram or other modes of transport (see above). That said, you can join a cruise and relax on one of many rivers and canals.

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Red Tape

If you are a European Union (EU) citizen, you may enter without any restriction as per your EU citizenship rights. If you are not an EU citizen and Belgium is the first stop on your visit, you will need to obtain a Schengen Visa. This visa is valid for any country in the Schengen zone.

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Money

See also: Money Matters

Belgium has adopted the Euro (ISO code: EUR, symbol: ) as its official currency. One Euro is divided into 100 cents, which is sometimes referred to as eurocents, especially when distinguishing them with the US cents.

Euro banknotes come in denominations of €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200, €500. The highest three denominations are rarely used in everyday transactions. All Euro banknotes have a common design for each denomination on both sides throughout the Eurozone.

The Euro coins are 1 cent, 2 cents, 5 cents, 10 cents, 20 cents, 50 cents, €1 and €2. Some countries in the Eurozone have law which requires cash transactions to be rounded to the nearest 5 cents. All Euro coins have a common design on the denomination (value) side, while the opposite side may have a different image from one country to another. Although the image side may be different, all Euro coins remain legal tender throughout the Eurozone.

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Language

Belgium has three official language. Besides German which is spoken in a small part in the east, these include French in Wallonia and Dutch in Flanders. Brussels is officially bi-lingual.

Have a look at the Dutch Phrasebook and German Phrasebook to learn some useful travel lingo.

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Drink

Belgium means beer! And although beer might have its origin in the Czech Republic (or at least that what's the city Plzen is all about!), and although countries like the UK and Germany have more breweries, for such a small country it has a lot to offer for people who like beer. There are over 800 standard beers and you should at least try a few of the main ones. The choice is wide, but at least see if the next ones have something that might be something for you!

Our Belgian beer

Our Belgian beer

© All Rights Reserved ErinDriver

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Health

See also: Travel Health

There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Belgium.

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Safety

See also: Travel Safety

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Keep Connected

Internet

Internet is widely available in Belgium, but internet cafés are not common, because most people have internet access at home or through wifi. There are multiple internet access points in all cities and it is free in most libraries. Also in multiple gas stations, train stations and diners on the highways there is Wi-Fi available. Many cafés offer free Wi-Fi nowadays and if you can't find any you can always fall back on Quick or McDonalds which both offer free Wi-Fi.

Phone

See also: International Telephone Calls

The country calling code to Belgium is: + 32. To make an international call from Belgium, the code is 00.

Belgium has a modern telephone system with nationwide cellular telephone coverage. Belgium uses the GSM standard of cellular phones (900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands) used in most of the world outside of the U.S. There are three main companies (Proximus, Mobistar and Base, and a large number of MVNOs) offering wireless service. The country is almost totally covered. If you stay for some time, it may be advisable to buy a pre-paid cell phone card that you can use in any phone that supports the GSM standard on the 900/1800 MHz bands. Then incoming calls and SMSes are free. You can get sim cards for the three main companies in dedicated phone shops. Sim cards from the MVNOs are readily available at supermarkets (Carrefour, Aldi, Colruyt to name a few all have their own brand). All networks provide UMTS and HSDPA (3G) mobile internet coverage, and are rolling out a 4G network, mainly in the big cities and eventually in the whole country.

Post

De Post is the national postal service of Belgium, with Dutch, French and German versions. They offer generally fast, reliable services. It's a relatively expensive service though, with normal domestic post (cards, letters etc) up to 50 grams costing €0.61. To other European countries it costs €1.03 and outside Europe it's €1.34. At the post offices, you can buy stamps and they have other services as well, including international money transfers. The opening times of post offices are 9:00am or 10:00am until 4:00pm or 5:00pm, depending on whether it's the main central one or a smaller branch or in towns. Some of them might be open on Saturday mornings, and remember that quite a few still close for lunch break! De Post also offers the sending of parcels, but you could also use private international companies like UPS, TNT or DHL, as they offer roughly the same services and prices, but are generally faster.

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References

  1. 1 2007 Estimate. Source: Statistics Belgium

Quick Facts

Belgium flag

Map of Belgium

[edit]

Local name
België (Dutch), Belgique (French), Belgien (German)
Capital
Brussels
Government
Federal Parliamentary Democracy under a Constitutional Monarch
Nationality
Belgian
Population
10 585 000[1]
Languages
Dutch, French, German
Religions
Christianity (Catholic, Protestant)
Currency
Euro (EUR) €
Calling Code
+32
Time Zone
CET (UTC+1)
Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)

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    I travelled to Belgium for the first time in 2009 and have been back 5 times since. In 2010, I work at the Jacques Brel youth hostel in Brussels for 3 months as a Volunteer -Intern. I worked the front desk as receptionnist/ tourist info and learned a lot about the city and areas.
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