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Czech Republic

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Travel Guide Europe Czech Republic

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Introduction

Prague by night #2

Prague by night #2

© All Rights Reserved Rena13

Few visitors to the Czech Republic ever venture far beyond Prague - hardly surprising considering the city's remarkable attraction. At the city centre, architectural styles of the last 900 years stand side-by-side, paying tribute to the city's immense cultural and historical heritage. Prague lends itself to romance, with its rich past and thriving music scene, boasting everything from classical to jazz.

But while Prague's lure is great, those few visitors who check out some of the Czech Republic's other highlights will find themselves amply rewarded. At Karlovy Vary, Bohemia's oldest spa, visitors can enjoy any of the 12 hot springs, or simply relax away from the hustle and bustle of Prague. For stunning scenery, the Moravian Karst area boasts some of the republic's most breathtaking scenery, as well as some 400 caves which can be explored in a guided tour. Cesky Krumlov, 160 kilometres south of Prague is a fascinating medieval town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an ideal centre for visiting the many castles that are scattered across southern Bohemia. Worth a mention is the relatively unknown and therefore unspoilt Znojmo region, which boasts rich jewels of history and nature. The Czech Republic is a small country with excellent public transport, and many interesting places can be visited from Prague. Karlštejn (another wonderful castle), Mělník, Kutná Hora and Pardubice all make for interesting day trips. As a complete contrast, a visit to the former ghetto and prison camp at Terezín will give you a sobering reminder of the darkest days of World War II.

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Brief History

The Bohemian or Czech state emerged in the late 9th century. The kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power during the Middle Ages. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire. After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia became part of the Austrian Empire and later of Austria–Hungary. Serfdom was not completely abolished until 1848. After the Revolutions of 1848, Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria attempted to rule as an absolute monarch, keeping all the nationalities in check.

An estimated 150,000 Czech soldiers died in World War I. Following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I, the independent republic of Czechoslovakia was created in 1918. This new country incorporated regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Slovakia and the Carpathian Ruthenia.

Czechoslovakia uneasily tried to play the role of a "bridge" between the West and East. However, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia rapidly increased in popularity, with a general disillusionment with the West, due to the pre-war Munich Agreement, and a favourable popular attitude towards the Soviet Union, due to the Soviets' role in liberating Czechoslovakia from German rule. In the 1946 elections, the Communists gained 38% of the votes and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament. The decisive step took place in February 1948 when a new, all-Communist government was formed. For the next 41 years, Czechoslovakia was a Communist state within the Eastern Bloc.

In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the peaceful "Velvet Revolution". However, Slovak national aspirations strengthened and on January 1, 1993, the country peacefully split into the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. Both countries went through economic reforms and privatizations, with the intention of creating a capitalist economy.

From 1991, the Czech Republic, originally as part of Czechoslovakia and now in its own right, has been a member of the Visegrád Group and from 1995, the OECD. The Czech Republic joined NATO on 12 March 1999 and the European Union on 1 May 2004.

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Geography

The Czech Republic lies mostly between latitudes 48° and 51° N (a small area lies north of 51°), and longitudes 12° and 19° E. The Czech Republic shares international borders with Germany, Poland, Slovakia and Austria. The Czech Republic's landscape is, although not very spectacular, quite diverse. Bohemia, to the west, consists of a basin drained by the Elbe and Moldau rivers. It is surrounded by relatively low mountains, such as the Krkonoše range of the Sudetes. The highest point in the country is Sněžka at 1,602 metres above sea level and is located here. Moravia is the eastern part of the country and also quite hilly. It is drained mainly by the Morava River, but it also contains the source of the Oder River.

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Regions

Since 2000, the Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions.

  • Central Bohemian Region
  • South Bohemian Region
  • Plzeň Region
  • Karlovy Vary Region
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
  • Liberec Region
  • Hradec Králové Region
  • Pardubice Region
  • Olomouc Region
  • Moravian-Silesian Region
  • South Moravian Region
  • Zlín Region
  • Vysočina Region

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Cities

  • Prague - The nation's capital and largest city
  • Brno - The largest city in Moravia and its former capital
  • Ostrava - A vibrant local subculture and long history of coal mining and heavy industry
  • Plzen - Home of the original Pilsner Urquell beer, and the largest city in West Bohemia
  • Olomouc - Riverside university town with a 1,000 year history and the second-largest historical centre in the Czech Republic
  • Liberec
  • Jablonec nad Nisou
  • Karlovy Vary - Historic (and biggest Czech) spa resort
  • Cesky Krumlov - Beautiful old town in South Bohemia with the country's second biggest chateau
  • Ceske Budejovice
  • Znojmo - the jewel of South Moravia

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Sights and Activities

Prague Castle

Prague Castle Illuminated

Prague Castle Illuminated

© All Rights Reserved yyztrvlr

Prague Castle is the castle that has been the home to Czech Kings, Holy Roman Emperors, presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. To this day the crown jewels of the Bohemian Kingdom are kept within its walls. It is also one of the largest castles in the world at 570 metres in length and an average of 130 metres wide. The castle was originally built in the 9th century but has seen major changes over the last thousand years. Today it is the current seat of government and very impressive building. Remember to visit Saint Vitus's Cathedral, which is an excellent example of gothic architecture, has great tombs and is in center of the castle.

Karlštejn

Karlštejn is a very large gothic castle that was founded in 1348 by the Holy Roman Emperor of Charles the IV. It was originally built to house the Empire coronation jewels, holy relics and many other royal treasures. The castle went under a number of remoldings with the last in the in the late 19th century giving the building its current look. Today Karlštejn is one of the Czech Republics most popular castles and is a good day trip from Prague.

Mount Sněžka

Mount Sněžka is the highest mountain in the Czech Republic at 1,603 metres (5,260 feet). Bordering Poland this mountain is stunning and beautiful. On the Czech side there is a small lodge and a run down chair lift. There is talk of updating the facilities, including a new observation tower. The mountain is a nice hike and offers great views from the top.

Other Sights and Activities

  • Vitus's Cathedral - Is one of the most stunning churches in the Czech Republic.
  • Mount Tabor - Visit the famous mountain where the transfiguration of Christ supposedly took place.
  • City Squares - Enjoy the beautiful city squares of towns like Tábor.
  • Krkonoše National Park - Go hiking and get a breath of fresh air in the mountains at this wonderful national park on the border with Poland.
  • Beer - Drink down some of the best beer in the world at bargain basement prices.

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Weather

The Czech Republic has a moderate continental climate with warm summers and relatively cold winters. Average temperatures are around 23 °C to 25 °C from June to August, while winters (December to February) have temperatures between -5 °C and 0 °C. Temperatures up to 35 °C in summer or below -20 °C in winter are possible though. Precipitation is heaviest during the summer period, and winters can have signficant snowfall, especially in the higher hilly or mountainous areas, such as the area near the border with Poland. The east of the country is a bit warmer in summer and slightly colder in winter, but differences are small.

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Getting There

By Plane

Ruzyně International Airport (PRG) is the main international airport in the Czech Republic, serving Prague. It services flights to destinations in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Czech Airlines, the national flag carrier, has its main hub here.

Smaller airports are found at Pardubice, Ostrava, Karlovy Vary and Brno. This serve a limited number of international flights, depending on the season.

By Train

The Czech Republic is well connected by train from neighbouring countries and even direct trains to countries further away. Prague and Brno areon the route from Berlin and Dresden to Bratislava and Buda­pest. Another route leads from Hamburg and Berlin to Vienna, passing Prague and Brno as well. Trains from Frankfurt and Munich pass through Plzen on the way to Prague. Finally, daily express trains serve Prague from Warsaw via Wroclaw or Katowice in Poland.

By Car

You can cross into the Czech Republic from Germany, Poland, Slovakia and Austria across dozens of international borders. Crossing is straightforward and with the proper documentation regarding yourself and the car (including an international driving permit and green card/insurance) you will face no problems.

By Bus

Capital Express has a daily service between London and Prague. Bohemia Euroexpress International and Eurolines serve a large number of cities throughout Europe.

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Getting Around

By Plane

Czech Airlines has a number of domestic flights. Destinations include Prague to Ostrava, Karlovy Vary and Brno.

By Train

Czech Railways operates the rail network in the Czech Republic. Most trains originate and terminiate in Prague and serve most cities and bigger towns.

By Car

Czech Republic has an extensive and well maintained network of motorways and other primary roads and also the secondary roads are generally in a good condition, even after more severe winters. You need a vignette for using the motorways, available at borders or petrol shops and included when you rent a car from one of many international and local companies on airports and downtown in most cities.
You need a national driver's licence with a photo ID, otherwise an international permit will do. Be sure to have valid insurance (green card) and turn your headlights on at all times!

By Bus

There are dozens of buslines in the country with even the smaller places having at least a daily connection, but often more. Check the timetable for more information (also train timetables by the way).

By Boat

Few regular passenger services are of use to travellers, if at all they exist. A leisurely cruise on the main rivers is always a nice way to experience the country of course and most boats will leave from Prague.

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Red Tape

Main article: Schengen Visa

If you are a European Union (EU) citizen, you may enter without any restriction as per your EU citizenship rights. If you are not an EU citizen and Czech Republic is the first stop on your visit or your main destination, you will need to obtain a Schengen Visa from the Embassy of Czech Republic. This visa is valid for any country in the Schengen zone.

Also see http://www.mzv.cz/jnp/cz/informace_pro_cizince/visa_form/index.html for more (official) information on czech visa and immigration policy (information is minimal; best contact your local Czech consulate directly)

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Money

See also: Money Matters

The Czech Koruna (CZK) is the official currency. One Koruna ("crown" in English) equals to 100 haléřů (singular: haléř, nominative plural: haléře). The Koruna is abbreviated as "" while the haléřů with just a "h". Banknotes are in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 5,000 Kč. Coins in use are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Kč.

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Language

Useful dictionary in the Czech language when you are travelling around:

  • vlak – train
  • autobus – bus
  • nástupiště – platform
  • Odjezdy – Departures
  • Příjezdy – Arrivals
  • jízdenky – tickets
  • autobusové nádraží - bus station
  • vlakové nádraží - train station
  • Numbers are: jedna (1), dva (2), tři (3), čtyři (4), pět (5), šest (6), sedm (7), osm hodin (8), devět deset hodin
  • "jednu (jedna dva tři) jízdenky, prosím" - one (1, 2, 3) ticket please
  • "povinně místenkový vlak" - seat reservation necessary on this train
  • "neúplná cena" - incomplete price (usually with international connections; may only show the cost of the ticket within the Czech Republic, not past the border)
  • "Vlak nečeká na žádné přípoje" - The train will not wait for any connections.

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Drink

The Czech Republic is the country where modern beer (pivo in Czech) was invented (in Plzeň). Czechs are the heaviest beer drinkers in the world, drinking about 160 litres of it per capita per year. The best-known export brands are Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj), Budweiser Budvar (Budějovický Budvar) and Staropramen (freely translatable as "Oldspring"). Other major brands which are popular domestically include Gambrinus, Kozel (goat), Bernard (a small traditional brewery, with very high quality beer), Radegast, and Starobrno (made in Brno, the capital of Moravia). Other fantastic beers worth tasting are Svijany and Dobřanská Hvězda. Although many Czechs tend to be very selective about beer brands, tourists usually don't find a significant difference. And remember, real Czech beer is only served on tap – bottled beer is a completely different experience. High-quality beer can almost certainly be found in a hospoda or hostinec, very basic pubs which serve only beer and light snacks.

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Health

See also: Travel Health

There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to the Czech Republic. It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to the Czech Republic. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended.

It is also recommended to have a vaccination against tick borne encephalitis when you go hiking and/or camping for 4 weeks or more in the period of March to November.

Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.

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Safety

See also: Travel Safety

The Czech Republic in general is a very safe country to travel around. Just take normal precautions like you would at home. Be aware of pickpockets in busy places like markets and stations and avoid quiet dark streets and use a taxi instead late at night.

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Keep Connected

Internet

Wifi is available in many restaurants and most cafés, especially in larger cities. In particular, all branches of Starbucks, KFC, Gloria Jeans Coffee and Costa Coffee offer free access. You may need to ask a waiter for the passphrase. There are also some hotspots available on the streets and some city quarters (for example in Prague) offer free wifi coverage for everyone. However such coverage is usually very slow and unreliable and you may need to create an account (using a web browser and the page it is automatically redirected to) to be able to use it. In most larger cities, there are also several internet cafés available.

Phone

See also: International Telephone Calls
There are three main mobile phone operators using the GSM standard, their coverage is very good (except in some remote, mostly uninhabited areas). If you find using roaming with your own operator too expensive or you want to have a Czech phone number, you can buy an anonymous prepaid card from any of the three main operators.

You can call emergency numbers from any phone for free (even without any card). The universal emergency number 112 is functional and you can use it, however you will reach only a telephone operator who will need to contact the real emergency service for you. To save precious time, it is best to call directly the service you need: 150 for firefighters, 155 for medical emergency, and 158 for state police.

Post

Ceska Posta is the national postal service of the Czech Republic. It offers good services with reliable, affordable and relatively fast delivery of postcards, letters and parcels. Postcards and letters weighing up to 20g which are being sent to countries within Europe cost 17 CZK, other countries cost 18 CZK. Within the Czech Republic, prices start at 10 CZK. Opening times of post offices vary but most of them are open from around 8:00am to 6:00pm or 7:00pm Monday to Friday, closing at noon on Saturday, closed on Sunday and public holidays. Larger and/or central post offices might keep longer hours and some have English speaking staff. You can buy stamps here, or at newspaper stands, kiosks or some small (souvenir) shops. Post offices offer a few other services, like (international) money transfers as well. FEDEX, DHL, TNT and UPS offer courier services as well, with fast but relatively expensive services.

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References

  1. 1 End-2007 Estimate. Source: Czech Statistical Office

Quick Facts

Czech Republic flag

Map of Czech Republic

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Local name
Ceska Republika
Capital
Prague
Government
Parliamentary Democracy
Nationality
Czech
Population
10 381 000[1]
Languages
Czech
Religions
Christianity (Catholic)
Currency
Czech Koruna (CZK)
Calling Code
+420
Time Zone
CET (UTC+1)
Summer Time
CEST (UTC+2)

Contributors

as well as Hien (10%), Lavafalls (9%), Peter (8%), Stockczech (6%), dr.pepper (4%), janhb1 (1%)

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This is version 37. Last edited at 12:34 on Jun 24, 13 by Utrecht. 55 articles link to this page.

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