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Situated at the northern end of Central America and owning stretches of coast on both the Caribbean and the Pacific, Guatemala is a land of great natural beauty, marked by highland lakes, exotic wildlife and some of the highest volcanoes in Central America. Its Mayan ruins, especially those at Tikal, are breathtaking remains of one of the world’s most ancient civilizations.
The first evidence of human settlers in Guatemala goes back to at least 12,000 BC. There is evidence that may put this date as early as 18,000 BC, such as obsidian arrow heads found in various parts of the country
Guatemala is the centre of the Mayan World. This ancient civilization was the most advanced in pre-Colombian America. The knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, agriculture, and architecture was superior. The Mayan civilization dominated the region for nearly 2,000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. During that time, Guatemala experienced a remarkable cultural development that few places in the continent had. In 1821, Guatemala and Central America declared their independence from Spain, but it wasn’t until the 21st. of March 1847, that the Republic was officially proclaimed, separating itself from the rest of Central America.
Guatemala's "Liberal Revolution" came in 1871 under the leadership of Justo Rufino Barrios, who worked to modernize the country, improve trade, and introduce new crops and manufacturing. During this era coffee became an important crop for Guatemala. From 1898 to 1920, Guatemala was ruled by the dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera.
From 1985, Guatemala has begun a new process in its history, directed to peace and democracy. The nation has been stable since 1996 and has been in a state of continuous development and economic growth. Since the peace accords, Guatemala has witnessed successive democratic elections, most recently in 2007.
The indigenous culture in Guatemala is considered the strongest in Central America, particularly in the central and western highlands of Guatemala. The largest of the indigenous groups are the Maya, with 21 different groups making up over half the countries population.
Unique among many indigenous peoples in Central America, the Maya maintained a hold onto many aspects of their identity throughout Spanish colonial rule and as such many of their customs, textiles, social structure and beliefs are still in practice. Each region may have it's own language, and history, often with different villages in the same region having their own unique customs, traditions and beliefs. Similarly, the most striking symbol of Mayan identity is the traditional dress, though today it is mostly only women and girls who do so. Predominantly, the huipil, a short tunic often tucked into a long skirt, is a means of identifying history of the wearer, with each village often having it's own intricately designed patterns and colour schemes.
Many Mayan communities suffered terribly during the war that gripped Guatemala for over 35 years, with traditions and religious beliefs playing a very complex role in their persecution. Therefore, many visitors to communities away from large tourist areas may find the Maya to be very reserved, especially when it comes to their traditional customs. However, patience and honesty can often reward you in the most unexpected ways.
Most Mayan families rely on farming as the primary source of food and/or income, with corn and black beans being the dominant crops that form the staple part of their diet. A primary tool within the corn harvest is the machete, which is often carried everywhere by Mayan men. At first this can be an alarming sight but is soon experienced as being a normal part of daily life.
As within many cultures, photography is a sensitive issue. In areas where tourism is common place permission from whomever you are photographing may not be such an issue unless it is a child, in more remote areas always seek permission before taking a photograph.
Guatemala borders Honduras and El Salvador to the (south)east, Mexico to the north and northwest and Belize to the north/northeast. It also borders both the Caribbean Sea as well as the Pacific Ocean. Guatemala is a mountainous country, except for the souther coastal area and the vast northern lowlands of Petén department. Two mountain chains enter Guatemala from west to east, dividing the country into three major regions: the highlands, where the mountains are located; the Pacific coast, south of the mountains; and the Petén region, north of the mountains. Volcan Tajumulco is the highest mountain in the country and of all of Central America, at 4,220 metres above sea level. Guatemala enjoys a rich biodiversity, with lakes, rivers, swamps, rainforests and mangrove areas all adding to the abudant flora and fauna. The rivers are short and shallow in the Pacific drainage basin, larger and deeper in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico drainage basins, which include the Polochic and Dulce Rivers, which drain into Lake Izabal, the Motagua River, the Sarstún that forms the boundary with Belize, and the Usumacinta River, which forms the boundary between Petén and Chiapas, Mexico.
Guatamala consists of 22 administrative "departments" (departamentos): Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan,
In Guatemala City, be sure to check out the central market, the plaza, the cathedral and the palace. They are all in the same block pretty much. At the central market make sure you catch a glimpse of "Frog Man." A Guatemalan beat box legend. Makes for great entertainment!
Antigua is a small colonial town just outside Guatemala City, which was once the Guatemalan capital. It is placed on the Unesco World Heritage List. Right up your alley if you like your alleys to be lined with colonial architecture. Look out for Guatemala's unique squat, Baroque-embellished churches.
Quetzaltenango also known as Xela, this picturesque town attracts more long term travelers who are serious about learning Spanish in one of it's many language schools, or volunteering with one of the many NGOs based in the town. Quetzaltenango is also a great place to organize some fantastic volcano hikes, or day trips to sites of interest in the surrounding region.
Tikal is a provincial park that boasts the presence of Mayan temples, jaguars, monkeys and all sorts of small interesting creatures. The combination of these ancient Mayan temples with dense jungle and beautiful wildlife (especially birds and butterflies) makes this one of the nicest Mayan sites anywhere in Central America.
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Lago Atitlan, framed by volcanoes and dubbed 'the most beautiful lake in the world', is a must. Semuc Champey is a spectacular staircase of turquoise pools suspended on a natural limestone bridge in the Alta Verapaz. Pacaya is the most accessible of three active volcanoes and has a geological museum and a geothermal generation plant. You can bathe in hot springs in Rio Dulce, or take a boat down its gorge from Lago de Izabel to the Caribbean coast. A strenuous 8-hour hike will give you a front seat to Santiaguito, an active volcano that erupts ash and rocks every few hours.
These are mostly found in Petén, but their sheer quantity and scale is astonishing. The most famous is Tikal, where temples and pyramids rise out of tropical forest alive with birds and monkeys. Other sites include Yaxha, Ceibal, Uaxactan, Aguateca, Copan (Honduras) and remote El Mirador and Nakbe, accessible only by mule or helicopter.
Guatemala boasts a tremendous array of animals and birds in some of Central America's best preserved rain forests: jaguar, ocelot, tapir, spider and howler monkeys, toucans, hummingbirds, parakeets and vultures, to name a few. Peten has the best of Guatemala's nature reserves. If you are after the elusive and majestic Quetzal (Guatemala's national bird) the cloud forests of Alta Verapaz are a good place to start.
The vibrant weekly markets are unmissable. Buy a huge range of Mayan textiles, crafts, hammocks, clothes, jewelry, home furnishings, ceramics and folk art in the highlands, local handicrafts and carved woodwork in El Remate in Peten, antiques and art in Antigua. The best markets are in Chichicastenango, Panajachel, Santiago, Antigua, Guatemala City. Bargaining is part of the fun.
Go hiking, mountain biking or horse riding in the western highlands, best with a guide. Try deep sea fishing off the Pacific coast, kayaking or altitude diving in Lake Atitlan. Take a canopy tour outside Tikal.
Below is a list of national and major festivals in the country:
Being a predominantly Catholic country, most villages and towns will be associated with a saint or two, and so will throw a large fiesta on the said saint's name day. When traveling around, it is worthwhile finding out what saint the town has adopted and on which day the name day falls.
Mayan fiestas are usually full of colour, marimba music, dancing and often home-made pyrotechnics. Drinking has also become a large part of many fiestas and as the celebrations goes on, men especially often become totally inebriated, and with this the risks that come with large drunken groups the world over.
From November to April Guatemala has the dry season, which is a good time to enjoy Central America. That said, rivers, waterfalls and nature in general is much more beautiful during rainy season from May to October. Although much of the country has high temperatures of around 30 °C during the day and around 20 °C at night, there are some regional differences which mainly have to do with the altitude. The Pacific coastline in general is warmer, while more inland temperatures can drop below zero at night.
La Aurora International Airport (GUA) near Guatemala City is where most international flights depart and arrive. Grupo TACA has flights to Cancun, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Miami, New York, San José in Costa Rica San Pedro Sula in Honduras San Salvador, Tegucigalpa and Washington. Several other destinations are mostly within Central America or the United States, but Iberia has direct flights to and from Madrid.
There is no scheduled passenger train to and from Guatemala although there is a line to Mexico and one to El Salvador used by freight trains and chartered for tours as well.
The Pan-American Highway runs through Guatemala from Mexico in the north and El Salvador in the south and even access from Belize via Flores is possible.
Tica Bus is a major operator in Central America, with connections to and from Guatemala from all neighbouring countries, including direct services from El Salvador. There are also buses to and from Mexico and Honduras, less so from Belize.
Travel times from Guatemala City are around 6 hours to San Salvador in El Salvador and San Pedro Sula in Honduras. There is only one land connection to Belize, just west of San Ignacio, on the road to Tikal/Flores. Another big operator is King Quality, which travels on the San José de Costa Rica - Tapachula (Mexico) route, with buses between the capitals of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala.
There are ferries between Livingston and Puerto Barrios in Guatemala to several places in southern Belize, like Punta Gorda. Services from Puerto Barrios tend to be more frequent, with daily connections in both directions. Services from Livingston are mostly twice a week to/from Punta Gorda, on Tuesdays and Fridays for about $17.
Requeña’s Charter Service & Watertaxi operates a watertaxi, “Mariestela”, between Punta Gorda and Puerto Barrios. It departs Punta Gorda daily at 9:00am from the Municipal pier near the Customs & Immigration Office. It departs Puerto Barrios daily at 2:00pm from the pier near the Shell gas station. It takes about 1 to 1.5 hours and costs BZ$40.00 each way (about US$20). Check the Belizenet Requena website.
Other options include the Pichilingo, departing Puerto Barrios daily at 10:00am and departing Punta Gorda daily at 2:00pm. Duration is about 1 hour and costs BZ$50.00 each way (about US$25). Or take the Marisol departing Puerto Barrios daily at 1:00pm and Punta Gorda daily at 4:00pm. Same duration and costs. For up to date information check the following website.
There's also a boat from Lívingston to Omoa in Honduras, which usually goes daily.
Both international and local agencies have cars for rent in Guatemala City, but it is not really recommended. Roads are not always in a good conditions and two thirds of the roads are not passable after very heavy rains. To add, there is possible danger of car jackings or robbery along roads, especially at night.
The bus companies which use tourist buses called pullman are the most comfortable means of transportation. For a cheap, daring, adventurous trip take the chicken buses or polleros. These are the refurbished old school buses brought down from the United States. They get packed to the brim with passengers and the rides can be bumpy. But they are the only access to some places that have curvy two-lane mountainous roads. There are smaller buses or vans that are more comfortable but also work as local buses and have many stops before your final destination. Most are safe, cheap and honest and the Guatemalans help travellers get to their next spots safely. Both the larger chicken buses and smaller vans will originate from a central bus station (in larger towns) or the town/village square. Finding the correct one is easy as they will have their destination displayed in large colourful letters on the front, and the ayudantes (assistants - like a conductor) will be shouting the destination repetitively.
In the Guatemala city there are yellow taxis with meters, and there are other taxis without meters. Be sure to ask the driver before getting in what the price will be, if you don't agree then you can bargain down or refuse the ride if you think it is a bad price.
Livingston and some national parks are only accessible by boat and river trips, such as the Rio Dulce, can be great experiences, especially if you combine tours and public transport. It's also possible to hop on regular passenger services on jungle rivers in the north and on Lake Atitlán.
Between October and May cruises depart from Santo Tomas de Castilla to nearby destinations in Mexico, Honduras and El Salvador, before returning to their original departure sites. Most cruises also offer onshore excursions like touring the towns along the coast of Guatemala, a trip to the city of Antigua, visiting the Mayan ruins at Tikal and so forth.
Citizens of the US, Canada, EU countries, Norway, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Israel and Japan among a few other countries do not need visas for touristic visits to Guatemala. On entry into Guatemala you will normally be given a visa valid for a 90-day stay. Citizens of some Eastern European countries are among those who do need visas to visit Guatemala.
Note that since 2006 a 90-day stay actually means a stay within the Centro America 4 (CA4) region, including Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua. You can extend the stay with another 90 days, after which you have to leave the region, for example to Belize, Mexico or Costa Rica.
See also Money Matters
The quetzal (code: GTQ) is the currency of Guatemala. It is divided into 100 centavos.
Coins include 1 centavo, 5, 10, 25, 50 centavos, 1 quetzal.
Banknotes come in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 quetzales.
If you want to volunteer your time and skills within Guatemala, Entre Mundos, based in Quetzaltenango, is a good place to start. They basically act as a go between for NGOs & charities and eager volunteers.
Related article: Spanish: Grammar, pronunciation and useful phrases
Spanish is the official language of Guatemala, although it is not used everywhere among the country's indigenous population, even as a second language. Alltogehter, Guatemala has 23 languages, though not all of them are regarded as national languages.
Almost every town square will have a variety of street vendors offering a variety of food and drink. Look for the busiest ones (usually the cleanest) and you'll be rewarded with some very tasty and cheap delights. Mini-tacos, tamale (a starchy cake with a savory filling wrapped in a banana leaf and steamed), atole (a thick drink made from corn, can be sweet or sour), as well as fried beans and tortillas are a few examples to look out for.
See also Travel Health
There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Guatemala. There is one exception though. You need a yellow fever vaccination if you have travelled to a country (7 days or less before entering Guatemala) where that disease is widely prevalent.
It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Guatemala. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended and vaccination against hepatitis B, tuberculosis, rabies and typhoid are also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months.
Malaria is prevalent in the country and it is recommended to take malaria pills and take other normal anti-mosquito precautions as well. Dengue sometimes occurs as well. There is no vaccination, so buy mosquito repellent (preferably with 50% DEET), and sleep under a net. Also wear long sleeves if possible.
Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.
See also Travel Safety
Despite its great attraction, Guatemalan tourism has been adversely affected by frequent violent attacks on travellers to its country. It is therefore recommended that visitors limit their sightseeing to the major destinations and travel with a reputable tour group if you are going on an organised trip. Travelling independently is no problem though, but try to travel during daylight hours only and avoid night buses.
If you do decide to head off into more remote regions, you will be rewarded with a very intimate experience with Guatemala and it's people and lands. Sensible precautions will see you have a safe, adventurous trip, and seeking advice from locals is the best way to keep up to date with the regions security situation.
In Guatemala City and much less so in a few other popular tourist spots, there tend to be a lot of pickpockets, so make sure you aren't packing any documents and other important stuff while you're sightseeing and surely don't flash your money, jewelry and other valuable stuff around.
See also International Telephone Calls
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I'm 19. I just drove the panamerican highway With my family, to panama and back and spent good time in each country. If you would like any help or reliable info just ask!! Love this part of the world!! Speak Spanish! Been all over the world!
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I spent a glorious month travelling Guatamala-by far the bast experience of my trip around Central America. Breathtaking
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