Hidalgo, officially Free and sovereign State of Hidalgo, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The state has a number of relatively intact native cultures such as the Otomi. There are also three notable immigrant cultures, those of the descendants of Cornish miners from Cornwall (located in South West England) who arrived in the 19th century, a few self-proclaimed Italian descendants, and a small Jewish enclave which claims to be descended from Sephardi Jews which came to New Spain in the 16th century.
The state contains a number of ecotourism, cultural and archeological attractions including the Huasteca area, the ruins of Tula, natural hot water springs, old haciendas and mountain ranges.
Hidalgo is located in Eastern Mexico. Hidalgo is bordered by San Luis Potosí and Veracruz on the north, Puebla on the east, Tlaxcala and México on the south and Querétaro on the west. The terrain of the state is very rugged. At its lowest point it is only a few meters above sea level and it is over 3,300 metres above sea level at its highest. The state is divided into three geographical regions: the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Sierra Madre Oriental (mountain ranges), and the Mexican Plateau (Altiplano Meridional), which contains the highest peaks. Each of these regions are distinct from each other.
Although the Day of the Dead is also celebrated in many Latin American countries (and also in parts of Europe, Asia and Africa), the Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de los Muertos) is most intensily celebrated in Mexico where it is equal to a National Holiday. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. The celebration takes place on November 1st and 2nd, in connection with the Catholic holidays of All Saints' Day (November 1) and All Souls' Day (November 2). Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars honoring the deceased using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite foods and beverages of the departed and visiting graves with these as gifts. Although it is about the Dead, it is also a celebration where eating and partying both are common as well.
There are three main climates in the state. The lowlands are hot with temperatures rising as high as 44 °C in the summer in places such as the municipality of Pisaflores. Temperate regions can have hot days but often the temperature is moderated by cooler winds and clouds. Cold climates dominate the highest altitudes where freezing temperatures at night are not uncommon. Rainfall varies widely from as low as 250mm per year to as high as 2,800mm per year. The main indicator of climate type is altitude.
The north of the state has the lowest elevation and the hottest climate. It is also the smallest region of the state. The second region averages about 800 meteres above sea level and is more temperate in climate. The coldest climates at the highest areas are the most populated and average about 2,000 metres above sea level. Major elevations in the state include Cerro la Peñuela (3,350 metres), Cerro el Jihuingo (3,240 metres), Cerro la Paila (3,200 metres), Cerro las Navajas (3,180 metres), Cerro el Agual Azul (3,040 metres) and Cerro la Estancia (3,020 metres).
In addition to the three main geographic/climate regions, the state subdivides into a number of sub-regions. Sub-regions include the La Huasteca area. This extends like a green sash across part of the state, and altitude does not exceed 800 metres. It is mostly located near the Gulf Coast and receives a significant amount of rainfall from this body of water.
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