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The state borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and Ontario, Canada to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd most extensive, the 6th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States.
The bounds of the state are the Mason-Dixon Line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie. There are 5 regions. They are the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.
Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers.
Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate. Greater Philadelphia has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate while moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes markedly colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 250 centimetres of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall, as an average of 10 tornadoes touch down each year in the state.
Summers last from June to September and are nice and warm, between 25 °C and 30 °C during the day and between 15 and 20 °C at night. Winters last from December to March with average daytime temperatures mostly around zero or slightly above. Nights are well below zero during this time. Precipitation is quite evenly distributed throughout the year, with sometimes very heavy snowfall in winter. During summer, heavy showers can occur, especially after periods of hot weather.
There are three major International Airports in Pennsylvania:
1. Philadelphia International Airport (IATA: PHL, ICAO: KPHL) receives many domestic as well as international flights and is one of the busiest airports in the world regarding aircraft movements.
To/from the airport
2. Pittsburgh International Airport (IATA: PIT, ICAO: KPIT) receives many domestic flights and is located about 20 miles (32 kilometres) from downtown Pittsburgh. It has a few international connections, including flights to, Paris and Toronto and seasonal flights to Cancun and Punta Cana in the Dominican Republic.
To/from the airport:
3. Harrisburg International Airport (IATA: MDT, ICAO: KMDT)
Other airports servicing the state include:
Amtrak services Pennsylvania with rail service connecting to states in the Northeast, Midwest and South regions.
Many Interstates connect Pennsylvania with neighbouring states.
The entire state can be accessed by Greyhound and other bus services.
There are no major waterways connecting the state with transportation. The Delaware River runs along the eastern border of the state, however, this is mainly used for freight.
Pennsylvania is a very accessible state by plane, train or automobile. South Eastern Pennsylvania Transit Authority (SEPTA) services the Philadelphia area. Capital Area Transit (CAT) provides bus service in the Harrisburg area. And Port Authority of Allegheny County (PAT) services the Pittsburgh area. Amtrak connects the state by rail and several airlines connect major cities throughout the state.
In Philadelphia, SEPTA has eight regional rail lines leading into the city as well as 11 subway & trolly lines servicing the city itself. Pittsbugh's rail system, commonly known as the "T", provides subway service downtown & light rail service into the suburbs on four lines.
With the first Turnpike (toll road) in the country, Pennsylvania has an extensive network of major highways running north to south and east to west.
There are several state highways connecting the more populated areas of the state. Rural areas are also easily accessible through an extensive network of two-lane highways as well.
Many international rental companies have a wide selection of rental cars and these include Hertz, Avis, Dollar, Thrifty, Enterprise, Budget and Alamo/National. Most companies will require you are at least 25 years of age, although younger people might be able to rent cars at slightly higher rates and with some insurance differences as well. A national driver's license is usually enough, but an additional international one is recommended. Also note that it usually costs more to include lots of other extra things. For example extra drivers, GPS, the first full tank, SLI (Supplemental Liability Insurance), PAI (Personal Accident Insurance, usually covered already at home), road assistance/service plan, and drop-off costs for one-way rentals.
If you want to book a car, it is recommended that you book your car before arriving in the USA. This is almost always (much) cheaper compared to just showing up. Also, try and book with a so-called 'broker', which usually works together with a few or many car rental companies and can offer the best deal. Some examples include Holidayautos, Holidaycars and Sunny Cars. Some of the cheapest deals to book from Europe, includes Drive-USA, which also has a German version.
For more information and tips about renting cars and campers, additional costs, insurance, traffic rules, scenic routes and getting maps and fuel it is advised to check the USA Getting Around section.
Pennsylvania has a number of National Scenic Byways which offer a great way to explore the state crossing beautiful landscapes. Mostly, there are lots of national parks, state parks or monuments along the way and it's generally a better alternative than the faster but boring Interstate Highways.
Both the Philadelphia and Pittsburgh metro areas have an extensive network of bus lines servicing both the cities & the suburbs. SEPTA provides bus service throughout the Philadelphia metro area as well as into Delaware and New Jersey with almost 300 routes. Pittsburgh's PAT (Port Authority) has 180 routes connecting the city with its surrounding counties. Capital Area Transit (CAT) services the Harrisburg area with 30 routes. Philadelphia can also be reached by the Chinatown bus of which there are several lines connecting the Chinatowns of major northeastern cities, like New York City, Boston and Washington, D.C..
There are dozens of hotel and motel chains, ranging from budget to top end. Allthough they are not the most charming accommodations, they usually have a very decent midrange service with good rooms and are generally good value. At least you know what to expect and in some cases they are either the only or the best option in the area. Some of them include:
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