The Rocas Atoll is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Norte. It is located approximately 260 kilometres northeast of Natal and 145 kilometres west of the Fernando de Noronha archipelago. The atoll is of volcanic origin and coralline formation. There is a lighthouse of the Brazilian Navy that has been in operation and maintained since the 1960s, at the Northern end of Farol Bay. In its vicinity is a derelict lighthouse from 1933.
The oval atoll is 3.7 kilometres long and 2.5 kilometres wide. The lagoon is up to 6 metres deep and has an area of 7.1 square kilometres. The land area of the two islets (Cemitério Island, southwest and Farol Cay, northwest) is 0.36 square kilometres. Farol Cay accounts for almost two thirds of the aggregate area. The highest point is a sand dune in the south of larger Farol Cay, with a height of 6 metres. Both islets are overgrown with grasses, bushes and a few palm trees. The population consists of crabs, spiders, scorpions, sand fleas, beetles, large roaches, and many species of birds.
The atoll is a wildlife sanctuary, and in 2001 was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Numerous turtles, sharks, dolphins and birds live in the area. The atoll consists mainly of coral and red algae. The coral ring is almost closed, with a 200 metres wide channel on the North side and a much narrower channel on the West side.
The atoll and surrounding waters are contained in the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve. The reserve it is currently used solely for scientific research. Due to their remote location, the islands remain largely undisturbed by human activities. On the other hand, the remoteness also limits researchers' access to the islands and few studies have been developed on this atoll. The entomological fauna from Atol das Rocas was already recorded.
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