Sevastopol (in Russian Севастополь) is a port city located on the subtropical peninsula of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on the Black Sea Riviera. Sevastopol is situated on 7 hills like Athens, Rome, Moscow, Istanbul, every hill has its own name.
Facts: - the only city in the former Sovjet Union, which is the basis of 2 naval fleets - Russian and Ukrainian - the first Aquarium opened in Russia in Sevastopol in 1887 - ± 25,000 students living and studying in Sevastopol on one of 19 universities - Russian naval officers training is located on the south bay of the city - the first military museum in Russia was opened in Sevastopol in 1869 - Sevastopol has a special status in the political and administrative structure of Ukraine, the city's independence gives its administration , language, education and more. It gives our city the right of the large agricultural areas around Sevastopol on its territory to maintain two cities include Sevastopol - Balaklava and Inkerman and about 40 villages. So it is not just a city but a large autonomous province, which is about 1,000 square kilometres large. - 35 bays are located around the city. Sevastopol is the 34-kilometre long quay. About 1,000 ships make annually in Sevastopol - May 2009, Sevastopol receive official special status to its old coat of arms (Provided by Ekatharina the Great) to be allowed to enter and from this moment is the language on the streets and in all official documents and schools, Russian !!!!!!
Russia continues to lease the naval base in Sevastopol, because here the Admiralty of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Partly because of Sevastopol is still not part of the Crimean Republic, but has a separate status, which means that it directly by the national Ukrainian government is run, except for all local matters. Church falls under the Sevastopol Moscow Patriarchate. The location of Sevastopol was and is of very strategic importance and the city, like for example Paris, Istanbul, Rome, etc built on 7 hills.
The Black Sea coast and therefore the Crimea was already explored by the ancient Scythians and Samatianen which archaeologists have found residence dating to 1000 years BC. At the spot where now lies Sevastopol, founded the Greeks, the Dorians from Heraclea Pontica | Heraclea early as 420 BC the city Chersonesus. Chersonesus state since 1996 in the list of 100 outstanding monuments of world culture of UNESCO.
In the year 988 Grand Prince Vladimir converted to Christianity in Chersonesus. This marked the beginning of the spread of Orthodox Christianity on the Russian-speaking world. In the 9th century Chersonesus a component part of the Byzantine Empire. Chersonesus was eventually destroyed by troops of the Golden Horde and the area is now Sevastopol came in the 15th century under Ottoman administration.
During the Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774) Russian troops conquered the Crimea and again in the autumn of 1782 were the first Russian ships, frigates and Khrabry Ostrorogny, anchored in the harbor for the winter Akhtiar. On June 3, 1783, the city by decree of Catherine the Great renamed Sevastopol and they started to build a military draw. This originally bore the name Achtiar, a former Crimean Tatar settlement. A year later, was commissioned by Catherine the Great started the construction of a naval base and got the Greek name Sevastopol (σεβαστος of "respectable" and πολις, "City"). In 1791 the city was renamed the 1st Tsar Pavel Akhtiar, which after his death in 1804 by the Russian government was changed in Sevastopol. The same year the city appointed home to the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The first fort was built in 1809.
By the Turkish - Russian War in which a Russian frigate Sinop three Turkish ships sank, was Sevastopol during the Crimean War (1854-1856) long besieged by the coalition partners of Turkey, France, England and Italy. Eventually the city fell after 349 days siege in September 1855 in the hands of the coalition. A year later got the Russians to accept the Treaty of Paris (1856) control of the town.
On June 22, 1941 at 03.13, the city was involved in World War II. With an air strike, the city was then besieged for two one hundred and fifty days by the Nazis, however, only managed to take the city on July 1, 1942 when she was completely destroyed with only nine buildings intact. The two-year occupation that followed were the darkest days of Sevastopol belong. There were 27,307 people executed by the Germans, buried alive or drowned in the Black Sea and 45,000 deported to Germany. The Germans renamed the city Theodorichhafen. But after a 1 week long liberation battle was on May 9, 1944 the town recaptured by the Russians. In total only 3,000 inhabitants survived the Second World War. To defend the city got the status of hero city of the Soviet Union received a status that only 12 places and a fort was granted and received the Order of the Red banner with gold star. The 45,000 defenders of the city of Sevastopol received verdedigingseremedaille.
After the 2nd World War by decree by Stalin determined that living in the Crimea Crimean Tatars were exiled. This was because the Germans on all sorts of ways assisted between June 22, 1941 and May 9, 1944 with the idea that the Germans were as easy to expel the Russians from their Crimean peninsula Tataarstan (see above Golden Horde)
In 1954 the Crimea, the Ukrainian party leader, born Nikita Khrushchev, during a banquet in Lvov transferred to the Ukrainian republic. Because of the presence of the Sevastopol naval base was in a separate administrative unit assigned from the Crimea and the city was formally under the direct authority of Moscow. Sevastopol belonged not to the transfer. In Soviet times it was because of Sevastopol Black Sea Fleet deployment of a closed city, restricted to people who have not lived. Even people who lived there had to be in possession of a special authorization and justification for the city to leave. This status was only partially lifted in 1996 and completed in 2003.
After the breakup of the Soviet Union, the efforts of the Ukrainian Black Sea Fleet of the former Soviet Union (USSR) to declare Ukrainian property led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine. Also, the separate status of Sevastopol and the historical sentiment that many Russians and people cherish toward the city played a major role there. The Russian parliament, the Duma adopted a law which even part of Sevastopol to Russian territory was declared and therefore has to start increasing the tension high. This situation was temporarily resolved in 1997 when it was decided to split the Black Sea Fleet in the Ukrainian and Russian part. The Russians may 2017 to the naval base in the city rent. If Ukraine fails to fulfill commitments made this decision expires.
At the time of complete disintegration of the Soviet Union and the independent state of the various republics in 1991, also called the Crimea's independence. Autonomous Republic of Crimea. When the parliament a law took the time one hour ahead run and the same time as Moscow to handle, in 1992 through the Ukrainian army, the Crimean parliament dissolved and the deposed president.
Since its opening to international audience is an important and Sevastopol city each year, growing tourism market has become. This is mainly because of its subtropical climate and over 2,000 historical relics including Crimean War and World War II ruins of Chersonesus especially for people from the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Germany, Britain, France and Italy.
Coat of Arms: The red ribbon with the five-pointed star in the arms of Sevastopol refers to the status of hero city during World War II. It is the medal of Hero of the Soviet Union. The column in the arms is a monument (Bj. 1905) in the port of Sevastopol, referring to the warships during the Crimean War were sunk intentionally to protect the city against attacks from the sea.In Sevastopol is a different coat of arms in use. This was granted by the Great Ekatharina coat of arms with the standards of the Empress. Later replaced by the standard of Tsar Nikolay.
The city of Sevastopol is composed of 4 territories:
Apart from these 4 regions include the independent village of Inkerman and 47 others to the territory of Sevastopol
Population Composition 2008:
There are more than 100 different nationalities in Sevastopol. (January 1, 2009, Dutch nationality = 5.) The official languages in Sevastopol, the parliament adopted the Russian and Ukrainian. It also constitutes an exception Sevastopol, in Ukraine since the Ukrainisation imposed.
A former strategically carved into an object of the mountains that surround the port of Balaklava. Built during the cold war from 1947 to 1967. Officially declassified in 2003. Today, this complex dismantled and opened as a museum.
One of the oldest aquariums in the world, opened in 1897. With more than 200 marine species are presented in 31 1 aquaria and central pond. The aquarium is located at 1 ban the former Artillery forts located on the quay.
In Sevastopol is one of the few remaining panoramas (painting), panorama museums in the world. The panorama (built by architect O. Enberg and W. Feldman) is located on the largest memorial in Sevastopol, which the Historical Boulevard. This is the place where in the autumn of 1854 the 4th bastion was built on a hill. The great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy was here during the first defense and wrote his famous book "Sevastopol Stories" that a literary monument and tribute to the defenders has become. During the 50 anniversary, on May 14, 1905 opened the panorama is one of the three panoramas painted by the Russian painter Franz Roubaud. The painting shows unfortunately but 1 day see the 349 days of siege and defense, namely the storm of the hill Malakov on June 6, 1855, the height of the siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War see, from the standpoint of the city. The painting is 115 meters long, 14 meters high and covers an area of 1610 square meters. During the Second World War, the building was severely damaged. The bulk of the canvas is saved and placed outside the city. After the war the museum was restored. The restored painting was exhibited again on October 17, 1954 when the 100th anniversary of the defense was celebrated.
The Graf Kaya wharf is the main arrival dock of Sevastopol. On June 03, 1783 at the west side of South Bay and a wooden staircase built quay, which, by the main square (Ekaterininskaya) of the city. From 1959 called this square Nakhimovplein. The arrival of Empress Ekaterina II in 1787, the wooden staircase and dock replaced by a wide stone staircase arrival. G. PrincePotemkin gave the orders for this and named the place Ekaterininskaya, but the residents gave the place a different name and was popularly called, therefore, Graf Kaya. All this because Admiral Earl M. Vionovich, from 1786 to 1790 Chief Commander of the Black Sea Fleet, and the city was much bigger. The modern shape Graf Kaya quay in 1846 when the military engineer John Oupton the gate with two columns and the marble lions added. All sculptures are made by an Italian stonemason, F. Pelichio. The marble lions have been through a lot and seen how for example the people of Sevastopol, Admiral P. Nakhimov his brave heroes of the Battle Sinop met. In August 1855, a war ship filled with gunpowder exploded on the quay. The eyes of the lions saw the burning cruiser "Ukraina Chervona" perish together with the crew of the sinking destroyer sheltered "Svobodny, which continued firing at the German attackers. Black lions of the war welcomed the liberators of Sevastopol in 1944. For over 150 years as the lions are now in place and defend the main quay at Sevastopol.
Malakov the hill to witness the heroic defenses of Sevastopol 2. The hill is named after the sailor M. Malakov in the thirties of the 19th century. He served in the Black Sea Fleet for about 40 years and was known to everyone Korabelnaya the side of the city. During the Crimean War er5 on this hill, one of the main bastions built to defend the city. On October 5, 1854 when the city was bombed for the 1st time the 1st shot is one of the organizers of the defense of the city, Admiral V. Kornilov mortally wounded. A cross of cannonballs betrayal the place of the event. A bronze monument to the admiral was a project of the architect I. Shreder and the sculptor A.Bilder Ling in 1896. The admiral was shown when he was wounded while he was on the walls of the bastion standing. He leans with his left hand on the ground and the right to designate enemy positions. The last words of the Admiral were dying, "Defend Sevastopol" and are written in the bronze plaque. The figure of the sailor on the right is Peter koshka. The monument was destroyed during WW II. After the war, was restored during the 200th anniversary of Sevastopol in 1983 officially unveiled. The new monument is an exact copy of the earlier original.
"For Kazasky an example for all" was written on the 1st of Sevastopol memorial. It was placed on the boulevard Matrossky (formerly Michmansky) following the project of architect A. Brullov.A historic model ship is placed on an iron foot on a stone pyramid. Four reliefs decorating the foot: the God of the sea, Neptune, the Goddess of Victory "Nike", and the God of navigation and commerce "Mercury". There is also a portrait of A. Kazarsky, commander of the brig "Mercury" It was one of the wars between Russia and Turkey. On May 14, 1829 the brig "Mercury" armed with 18 guns, under the authority of captain - lieutenant was surrounded by 2 Turkish battleships. The brig was 10 times less armed mans and 2 compared to the Turkish ships, but the crew of the brig went to fight anyway. A. Kazarsky maneuvered his brig between 2 enemies, and could thus only firing volleys. The masts and sails of the Turks collapsed and required them to choose their heels. The "Mercury" had 22 holes in the fuselage and 300 other damages suffered in battle, but returned as a victorious return to Sevastopol. For this example of heroism, the crew of the brig brig and reward yourself with the Georgian star. The monument is a symbol of happiness for the people of Sevastopol, since it since its inception in 1839, in the successive wars is never destroyed.
St. Vladimir Cathedral is an architectural monument and histories that is placed on the central hill of Sevastopol. The ceremony for laying the stone was on 1st July 15, 1854 at the place where the tomb containing the remains of Admiral M. Lazerev, former commander of the Black Sea Fleet was. The siege of Sevastopol, which began in September of 1854 interrupted construction. The pupils of Admiral M. Lazerev being the admirals V. Kornilov. V. Istomin and P.Nakhimov died while defending the city and were buried beside the remains of their unforgettable teacher on the hill. The work for construction of the cathedral was resumed in 1862 under the direction of architect A. Addeev. It was built in the Byzantine style in 2 circles, and at the 900th anniversary of the Christening of Prince Vladimir inaugurated. The north and south facades of the cathedral are decorated with black marble with the names of the dead and fallen admirals. In the upper part of the church confirmed the plates with the names of the cases during the Crimean War naval officers. In the lower part of the church is using a black granite cross marked the burial place of the admirals. The cathedral suffered extensive damage during World War 2. In 1972 the cathedral was transformed and he came into possession of the Museum of the heroes and defenders of Sevastopol. The cathedral was his real destination in 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union restored.
The square can justifiably be called the center of Sevastopol. The first start was made in the open area between Grand and artillery bases in Sevastopol in June 1783 when the house of Admiral Mackenzy, landing quay and the church "St. Nicolas appeared. The first square was named Sevastopol Ekaterininskaya. The appearance of the square changed over the years into what today looks and the name changed also. At the end of the 19th century the name Asmiraal P. Nakhimov square. And in the 20th century, after several name changes such as: The square of the work, the 3rd International Square, Lenin Square and the parade square. The monument at the center of the square in 1959 in honor of Admiral P. Nakhimov, the hero of the defense of Sevastopol and the square was named after him immediately. The monument was a project of the sculptor and architect N. Tomsky A. Arefiev. The bronze image of the admiral was perched on a block of gray granite top. He is long and tall in his uniform with epaulets admirals., Et his binoculars in his hand looks like he just dock his ship has risen. P. Nakhimov served 40 years in the Navy. After the brilliant victory of the squadron commanded by Admiral P. Nakhimov at Sinop recognized him throughout Russia. In 1854 after the death of V. Kornilov was P.Nakhimov the leader of the defense of Sevastopol, and he spoke the famous words "I is not leaving town. Not dead, not living. " On June 28, 1855 he was mortally wounded in fighting on the Malakhov Hill. He is buried in the vaults of the Vladimir Cathedral in the center of town. An entire neighborhood, a square, a street and an industrial zone in Sevastopol named after him.
During the 8th and 9th centuries has started construction of the monastery in Inkerman.According to legend, the son Roman Bishop Kliment of Apostle Peter, in the 1st century exiled to Inkerman. There, he started to carve the first Christian temple in the rock. From 1990 it is again put into use as Orthodox church and find various renovations and reconstructions place.
The Primorsky Boulevard for residents of Sevastopol has been for generations one of the most favorite places in town. The youngest residents will be published early in this place where they and their parents long shady street walking. Those who have long been in other places to live, remember this place for the rest of their lives. The seafront, the monument to the sunken ships, the Dolphinarium and the aquarium are an attraction for residents and guests of the city. Primorsky boulevard which was founded in 1885 during the Crimean War, the artillery battery Nicolas has exploded. The building of the biological station designed by the architect A. Veizen arose in 1898 between the shore and the upper portion of the boulevard. The ground floor area is for hot in Russia 1st maritime museum established aquarium. The pre-war part of the Primorsky boulevard ends at the building of the I. Sechenov Institute of psychological methods and treatments, si built into the design of architect V. Tchistov. During the 2nd defense of the city, the building suffered great damage, which was restored in 1961 and then given to the pioneers of Sevastopol. The memorial to the Black Sea Squadron is installed on the wall between the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas and the Palace of children and youth. (Former Palace of Pioneers) On the memorial are the names of the ships between 1941 and 1945 belonged to the Black Sea Fleet. The most favorite day of the population of Sevastopol is the day of the Navy. This is a holiday where there are several shows are given, both in the air and on water, also play various brass bands and orchestras in the Primorsky Boulevard. In the evening the military orchestras sp0elen "The Sevastopol Waltz", and the fireworks over the bay is chipped and salute as the last in the water of the Black Sea is reflected. On November 11, 2007, a fury unprecedented storm with huge waves pounded the docks and large parts of it shoo. The entire boulevard is restored and renovated and is given to the people of Sevastopol to the 225 anniversary of the city in 2008.
In Paris, recalls the great Avenue Sebastopol to the difficult conquest of the port. In 1854 the Turkish Sultan gave a number of generals pictured Gold Medal Crimea. Thousands of British soldiers and officers wore the silver medal Crimea, Sevastopol a campaign medal with one clasp.
The average climate  in Sevastopol :
Month / Day / Sea
|Sevastopol Mega Hostel||V.Kychera 5, ap.2||Hostel||90|
|TIU Bolshaya Sevastopol||Apt 16 38 Bolshaya Morskaya||Hostel||-|
|Crazy House Hostel||General Petrov 6, ap 9 Sevastopol||HOSTEL||-|
|Avrora Hotel||Kojanova 12||HOTEL||-|
|UYTA Lubimovka Summer Camp||1 Batarienaya Str. Lubimovka Vill.||CAMPSITE||-|
|Reikartz Sebastopol||22 Heroyiv Staligrada St.||HOTEL||-|
|Sunny Hostel Sevastopol||Bolshaya Morskay str.||HOSTEL||-|
|Very Well Company||Н. Музыки 36 1а||HOSTEL||-|
Internet develops quickly in Ukraine, and therefore, today it is no problem to get access to the world wide web - both wired and wireless. There are more access points in big cities, nevertheless there are also some in small settlements. The majority of Ukrainian hostels and hotels of different level have Wi-Fi points, which allow visitors to use high-speed Internet. Most Ukrainian restaurants and many cafes are equipped with internet access points, there are also Wi-Fi zones in terminals of the international airports. You may also access Internet from your cell phone, if your device supports GPRS or one of the 3G standards. All cellular carriers in Ukraine offer access to the mobile internet. Moreover, it's usually no problem to find Internet-cafe in Ukrainian cities. "Ukrtelecom" company offers Internet access as well. Its offices are easy to find in any town of Ukraine. The cost of one hour of Internet access usually doesn't exceed €1-2.
See also: International Telephone Calls
The international phone code for Ukraine is 380. The general emergency phone number is 112 and there are special ones for fire -(101), police (102), ambulance (103) and even gas leaks (104).
Although cell phones are becoming more and more popular, a lot of people still use phonecards and this might be a good and cheaper option for travellers as well. If you are here for any length of time it is worth investing in a local sim-card for your mobile. No major international mobile operators exist in Ukraine (yet) so if you have Vodaphone or T-mobile (etc) your phone may not work here. Kyivstar and MTS are the biggest Ukrainian operators.
Ukraine Poshta is the national postal service of Ukraine (website is rather slow and not always working). Unfortunately, the postal service in Ukraine is unreliable or at least inefficient and slow. Most packages get stolen or searched for things that can be sold. Post offices exist in all cities and towns and postcards can be sent quite safely, but the service may be slow. Like many other businesses, post offices are open from around 9:00am to 6:00pm with a lunchbreak between 1:00pm and 2:00pm, though opening times may vary. Smaller ones in rural towns keep shorter hours, while the largest ones in Kiev are usually open very late, during weekends or even 24 hours! If you want to send a letter or postcard and buy stamps, just queue up at the line where you see envelops and cards. Be prepared to wait a while, also regarding the time it takes to send a postcard to Europe (a week) or the USA (two weeks), let alone places further afield. Always send letters by airmail (avia in Ukrainian). For faster (but more expensive) sendings of parcels, try companies like TNT, DHL, UPS or FedEx.
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