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Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон) is an ill-conceived child of the Soviet demise in 1991: as the Soviets retreated and the country announced its independence, brutal civil war erupted. It took till 1997 to reach some form of an internal peace agreement, by which time the war had created half a million refugees. Even now, the tension sits uncomfortably high.
Obviously, Tajikistan is not ideal for a family holiday. Great care must be taken: don't go wandering the streets of Dushanbe late at night. But the spectacular heights of the Pamirs and the Tian Shan range provide some excellent hiking opportunities; if care is taken to avoid trouble spots, you could be in for some of the most outstanding scenery you'll ever see. Tajikistan boasts a number of peaks over 7000 metres, putting it high on the list of the world's most impressive visual treats.
The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited continuously since 4000 BC. It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, for the longest period being part of the Persian Empire.
Arabs brought Islam in the 7th century AD. The Samanid Empire supplanted the Arabs and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, which became the cultural centers of Tajiks (both of which are now in Uzbekistan). The Mongols would later take partial control of Central Asia, and later the land that today comprises Tajikistan became a part of the Emirate of Bukhara.
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to spread into Central Asia during the Great Game. Between 1864 and 1885 it gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan from today's border with Kazakhstan in the north to the Caspian Sea in the west and the border with Afghanistan in the south. Tajikistan was eventually carved out of this territory, which historically had a large Tajik population.
In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic. The predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of Samarkand and Bukhara remained in the Uzbek SSR. Between 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians among Tajikistan's population grew from less than 1% to 13%.
By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The following year, the Soviet Union collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence.
The nation almost immediately fell into a civil war that involved various factions fighting one another; these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties. The non-Muslim population, particularly Russians and Jews, fled the country during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics. Emomalii Rahmon came to power in 1992, and continues to rule to this day.
Russian troops were stationed in southern Tajikistan, in order to guard the border with Afghanistan, until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, American, Indian and French troops have also been stationed in the country.
Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It lies mostly between latitudes 36° and 41° N (a small area is north of 41°), and longitudes 67° and 75° E (a small area is east of 75°). It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 metres above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north (part of the Fergana Valley), and in the southern Kofarnihon and Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya. Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon valley. The Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea. There are over 900 rivers in Tajikistan longer than 10 kilometres.
Located in the northwestern Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Rergion, Ismoil Somoni Peak is the tallest mountain in all of Tajikistan. This amazing mountain is 7,495 m (24,590 ft) tall and is covered in snow year round. Named after an ancestor from the great Samanid dynasty, which was a dynasty during the persian empire (819 AD to 999 AD), this mountain is stunning. Only deemed the tallest mountain in 1928 and climbed for the first time by a Soviet mountaineer in 1933, one can truly explore this remote peak. The climb is very technical and requires lots of ice climbing. There are also several other peaks nearby like Ibn Sina Peak (Lenin Peak), Korzhenevskaya Peak and Qullai Istiqlol (Independence Peak).
Kyzylart Pass is a stunning mountain pass located in the Trans-Alay Range. This pass reaches a breath taking altitude of 4,280 m (14,042 ft). Located on the border of Kyrgyzstan the view from the pass is jaw dropping. Remember that the weather can brutal year round on this pass.
Lake Zorkul is a stunning mountain lake located on the border of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The lake runs from east to west for about 25 km. The northern half lies within the borders of Tajikistan and the clear blue waters are stunning. To all of sides of the lake one can see the stunning Pamir Mountains. 15 km south of the lake is the stunning Concord Peak, which is 5,469 m (17,943 ft) tall. On the eastern shore of the lake is the small settlement of Qarabolaq.
Tajikistan has a continental climate with generally dry weather, hot summers and cold winters, especially in the higher regions. Conditions in the lowlands, for example in the capita Dushanbe, are less extreme in winter, but can be very hot in summer. Generally temperatures are around 30 degrees in summer and around or slightly above zero in winter, during the day. At night, it normally freezes in winters but summernights are pleasant. Summers are drier than winters, when more rain and some snowfall (especially in the mountains) is more common.
Late spring (May/June) and early autumn (September) are good times for visiting most of the country.
The main international airport is at the capital Dushanbe and the national airline is Tajik Air. Tajik Air has flights mainly throughout the Central Asian region and Russia. It also has flights from Munich via Istanbul to the capital. Other airlines serving Tajikistan are limited to airlines from the former Sovjet Union, except flights with China Airlines from Ürümqi.
You can drive across many borders with Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan, though the one with China is closed for now. Have your visa and car documentation (green card, driving permit etc.) in order and expect some long waiting times across the some borders. The ones to Afghanistan are not really recommended but crossing to and from Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan is better than it has ever been.
Most cross border transport needs to be done in stages, that is taking a taxi/bus/minibus to the border, walk across the border and take onward transport from there.
To Afghanistan, you can travel between Dushanbe and Kunduz in a day, with a very early start you might make it to Kabul, but there is enough to see across the border already so need to do that. The main and easiest crossing is at Panj-e-Payon. To get to Panj-e-Payon take a shared taxi otherwise even a minibus to Dusti from Dushanbe or Kurgonteppa follwed by a taxiride to the border. There is also a crossing at Ishkashim but that one is easiest when you are heading for Afghanistan. To Tajikistan you will need to show a permit and those are technically only available inside Tajikistan though you might get on at the Tajik embassy in Kabul (don't count on it though).
For know, the new road between Tajikistan and China is not yet open for citizens other than those countries.
There are a couple of ways to get to/from Kyrgyzstan. From the Pamir Alay Valley you can cross into Tajikistan just north of the Kyzyl-Art Pass. From Khojand you need to get to Isfara and then take a shared taxi or bus to Batken in Kyrgyzstan. From there, transport to Osh normally travels through the Uzbek enclave of Sokh so you need a multiple entry visa for both Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. If you are headed directly to Osh from Khojand and have an Uzbek multiple entry visa it is best to take taxis through the Uzbek Fergana Valley to Kokand, Andijon and the border at Dostyk.
To/from Uzbekistan, the main border crossing is 55 kilometers west of Dushanbe, near Tursanzade/Regar, crossing to Denau. Taxis and buses go thre from. At the border, minibuses run to Denau town, where you may find a shared taxi direct to Samarkand. From Khojand there are two main border crossings. Oybek in the northwest for Tashkent, and Kanibadam in the northeast for Kokand and the Fergana Valley. It is best to get transport to the border, walk across and take onward transport again. Finally, it is easy to travel between Samarkand and Penjikent as well.
Tajik Air has a number of domestic flights. Routes include Dushanbe to and from Khorog, Khojand and Kulyab.
There are three main railway lines in Tajikistan. There is one leading south from Dushanbe through Kurgan-Tyube and Shaartuz. Another one leads south from Dushanbe, through Kurgan-Tyube to Tugul on the Afghan border. A third one is located in the northern region which runs from Samarkand, through Khojand to the Fergana Valley. A branch from Kulyab to Kurgan-Tyube is currently under construction.
Self drive cars are not available right now, but you can rent one with a driver. Some main roads are in an acceptable condition, but most are not and are full of potholes. Maintenance of vehicles and roads is just regular at best. In winter, most of the main roads are closed due to severe snow. The road from Khorog to Osh in Kyrgyzstan is kept open year round and is one of the most beautiful routes anywhere in the world, running through the Pamir Mountain Range.
From Dushanbe, buses go south to Kurgan-Tyrube and Kulyab and as far down as Pyanj and Ayvadaz. Buses to the east reach only around 100 kilometers, as far as Komsomolabad. If you want to travel further, you will need to arrange a car or be on a tour.
There are no boat services in the country.
Nationals from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia and Ukraine do not need a visa for visits up to 90 days. All other nationals do need a visa and you don't have to register at OVIR anymore for visits under 30 days. Most people now can get a visa at Dushanbe airport. No Letter of Invitation is necessary anymore as well. Note that crossing to Tajikistan over land requires you to obtain a visa before arrival.
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See also: Travel Health
There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Tajikistan. It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Tajikistan. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended and when travelling longer than 2 weeks also typhoid.
If you are staying longer than 3 months or have a particular risk (travelling by bike, handling of animals, visits to caves) you might consider a rabies vaccination. Vaccination against Tuberculosis as well as hepatitis B are also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months.
Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.
See also: Travel Safety
See also: International Telephone Calls
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