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Making up the southern flank of Pacific island nations (if a flank it could be called), Tonga sits on such a longtitude to have given it the honor of being the first nation to welcome in the new millenium. Tonga is also the only Pacific kingdom. The local tourist board will try to convince you that theirs are the Friendly Islands, but this is a distinction that is a little more doubtful: Tongans were historically a war-like people who looked down on pacifists, and the person who originally dubbed them the Friendly Islands, the venerable Captain Cook, was unaware of the Tongan plot on his life.
Gorgeous and culturally fascinating it is, however. Alongside the usual Pacific fun of swimming, snorkelling and diving, Tonga awards caving opportunities both underwater and on land. Local music and dance are somewhat modernized but stylistically as close as it gets to traditional Tongan styles. Kava, the local inebriant, is as popular among travellers as it is among the locals.
An Austronesian-speaking group linked to the archeological construct known as the Lapita cultural complex reached and colonized Tonga around 1500–1000 BC. By the 12th century Tongans, and the Tongan paramount chief, the Tuʻi, had a reputation across the central Pacific, from Niue to Tikopia, leading some historians to speak of a 'Tongan Empire'. In the 15th century and again in the 17th, civil war erupted.
Into this situation the first European explorers arrived, beginning in 1616 with the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire, and in 1643 with Abel Tasman. Later noteworthy European visitors included James Cook in 1773, 1774, and 1777, Alessandro Malaspina (Spanish) in 1793 and the first London missionaries in 1797.
In 1845 the ambitious young warrior, strategist, and orator Tāufaʻāhau united Tonga into a kingdom. Tonga became a protected state under a Treaty of Friendship on 18 May 1900, when European settlers and rival Tongan chiefs tried to oust the second king. Within the British Empire, which posted no higher permanent representative on Tonga than a British Consul (1901–1970), Tonga formed part of the British Western Pacific Territories (under a colonial High Commissioner, then residing on Fiji) from 1901 until 1952.
The Treaty of Friendship and Tonga's protectorate status ended in 1970 under arrangements established by Queen Salote Tupou III prior to her death in 1965. Tonga joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970 and the United Nations in September 1999. While exposed to colonial pressures, Tonga has never lost indigenous governance, a fact that makes Tonga unique in the Pacific and gives Tongans much pride, as well as confidence in their monarchical system. As part of cost cutting measures across the British Foreign Service, the British Government closed the British High Commission in Nukuʻalofa in March 2006, transferring representation of British interests in Tonga to the UK High Commissioner in Fiji. The last resident British High Commissioner was Paul Nessling.
Tonga is an archipelago consisting of 169 islands, 96 of which are inhabited. It is located in the South Pacific, south of Samoa and about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand. The islands stretch for some 800 kilometres from north to south. The largest island, Tongatapu, is 257 square kilometres. Its islands, 36 of them inhabited, are divided into three main groups – Vava'u, Ha'apai, and Tongatapu - and cover an 800-kilometre-long north-south line. The largest island, Tongatapu, on which the capital city of Nukuʻalofa is located, covers 257 square kilometres. Geologically the Tongan islands are of two types: most have a limestone base formed from uplifted coral formations; others consist of limestone overlaying a volcanic base. There is over 400 kilometres of coastline and the highest point is 1,033 metres above sea level.
Tonga consists of several main island groups.
Tonga has some excellent possibilities to go out whale watching and offers the unique chance to go swimming with them as well. The best places to go are the Vava'u group of islands which are an attractive tropical paradise of clear warm turquoise waters, beautiful coral reefs and white sandy beaches fringed with and coconut palms. In the waters there are at least 7 different types of whales and an encounter with sperm whales or the big humpbacks in these tropical waters is a memorable experience. The best time is from July to September. The trips are well organised and there are restrictions regarding what agencies can or can not do. It is not cheap, but for more information you can start reading over here.
The Mapu'a 'a Vaca Blowholes ('Mapu'a 'a Vaca' means 'Chief's Whistles') stretch for 5 kilometers along the southern shore of the island of Tongatapu. The Blowholes are best viewed on days when there is a strong wind and at high tide. Then the maximum amount of water is forced up through natural vents in the coral limestone, thus forming geyser-like fountains of seawater up to 30 meters high.
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Tongatapu has more to offer than the blowholes. Take your time on the biggest island in the east of the Tonga chain to admire the archaeological sit of Mu’a. It contains the richest concentration of archaeological remnants in Tonga. Here you will see pyramids which once functioned as royal tombs. The Ha’amonga ’a Maui Trilithon is a large gate of stone. There are marks on this gate which function as a way to see when the sun sets and rises and when the longest and shortest days of the year are. This means people living here in the past were already aware of the presence of a certain form of time and were actually quite developed back then. Nowadays, the people here are a big draw still and it is a very relaxing island to visit.
Held on the island of ‘Eua, this is one of the first festivals of the annual calendar. It is held in the second week of May and attracts visitors from around the globe to experience and learn about traditional Tongan culture.
Held in the second week of June every year, this festival showcases the islands’ finest culinary and cultural delights. It is designed to attract tourists, and plenty come to experience the relaxed atmosphere and to enjoy and learn about traditional Tongan cooking and culture.
The largest festival in Tonga is celebrated nationally. On July 4, Tongans celebrate the birthday of their king, which is then followed by a week-long festival. Almost like clockwork, this time of year coincides with the flowering of the heilala, which is Tonga’s national flower. The locals are proud of this beautiful tropical flower that unfolds a pink, cross-like shape, and as part of the festival, they adorn themselves in heilala necklaces.
This week-long festival is held in the last week of September every year. Different activities are scheduled each day, including boat races around the island, although possibly the best day is a culmination of the week’s events at the traditional Tongan Cultural Feast at Ano Beach, which turns into an all-night party.
Tonga has pleasantly warm but humid tropical climate. Daytime temperatures are around 30 °C while night are still wel above 20 °C. The wet season lasts from November to April while the period from May to October sees less rain and more sun. Still, some heavy showers are possible during this time but it is the best time to visit Tonga if you want to avoid most of the rainy days.
Visitors will arrive at Fua'amotu International Airport (TBU), not far from the capital Nuku'alofa on the Tongatapu Island group. There are direct flights with Polynesian Airlines from Apia in Samoa and several cities in New Zealand, as well as with Air New Zealand from Auckland. In addition, Fiji Airways and Pacific Blue fly from Nadi onFiji and Australia respectively. Air Fiji flies from the Fiji Islands as well, serving Suva.
There are no regular passenger services to and from Tonga, so your only option are the rare berth on a cargoship, an expensive cruise or hoping to find a yacht in the big Pacific to take you here.
Chathams Pacific are currently the only airline providing inter-island flights. They operate from Tongatapu to Eua, Vava'u, and Ha'apai, and flights are soon to commence to the Nuias. They are a New Zealand company, which provide an excellent and reliable service.
You can rent cars at the airport or Nuku'alofa, but some are not in a good shape. Although main roads are tarred, there are potholes and many secondary roads can be in terrible shape. Traffic drives on the left and you need a local driving permit which can be obtained the Police Traffic Department in Nuku'alofa after showing your national driver's licence or international permit and your pasport and fee.
Some buses and minibuses ply the main routes on Tongatapu and a few other islands, but services are not timetabled and are infrequent during the evenings and even late afternoons. It is cheap though and as distances are not to big, it is a great way to get around and travel the way locals do. Other local ways include renting a horse by the way.
Local ferries sail between all the island groups, but services are erratic and not comfortable at all. There are regular sailings though from Queen Salote Wharf in Nuku'alofa to Ha'apai and Vava'u. Ferry schedules are subject to change and are subject to demand or weather as well. To the Northern Islands, the following are the main options:
Visitors from the following countries can enter Tonga without a visa for up to 30 days:
Australia, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Estonia, Micronesia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kiribati, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niue, Norway, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Romania, Russia, Samoa, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sweden, Switzerland, Bahamas, Turkey, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States and Vanuatu.
Ohter nationalities need to obtain a visa in advance. Check the Tonga Visa Information online.
See also Money Matters
The paʻanga is the currency of Tonga. The paʻanga is subdivided into 100 seniti. The ISO code is TOP, and the usual abbreviation is T$ (¢ for seniti). In Tonga the paʻanga is often referred to in English as the dollar and the seniti as the cent.
Coins come in 5¢, 10¢, 20¢, 50¢ (1¢, 2¢ rarely used) and banknotes come in denominations of T$1, T$2, T$5, T$10, T$20, T$50 and T$100.
Tongan is the most widely spoken language in Tonga. English is also widely understood because many of the high schools teach exclusively in English.
There is a wide range of accommodation in Tonga, ranging from luxurious to budget. Most have relatively few rooms, though. The Tonga Visitors Bureau has a full listing.
Beer and liquor are available from many outlets, including Fijian, Australian and New Zealand imports to complement the local brews. If you are keen to check out native drink, try Kava (something like liquid novacaine) at least once.
The local beer is called Ikale and is sold in 330 ml bottles in most restaurants and bars (4.50-5 pa'anga). Or you can buy the same bottles from one of the many 'Chinese' roadside shops or a supermarket for 2 pa'anga or less. Imported beers are mainly from Australia although there are also some from Europe. Most are sold in 330 ml cans or bottles.
See also Travel Health
There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Tonga. There is one exception though. You need a yellow fever vaccination if you have travelled to a country (7 days or less before entering Tonga) where that disease is widely prevalent.
It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Tonga. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended and when travelling longer than 2 weeks also typhoid. Vaccination against hepatitis B is also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months.
Dengue sometimes occurs as well. There is no vaccinations, so buy mosquito repellent (preferably with 50% DEET), and sleep under a net. Also wear long sleeves if possible.
Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.
See also Travel Safety
The islands that make up Tonga are generally very safe for visitors with few real problems. One thing to remember when going for a swim is that there are many sharp corals near the beach, especially near Tongatapu and PangaiMotu. It is a good idea to wear a cheap pair of sandals while in the water. There are jelly fish and they do sting! They are also hard to see. It is a good idea to have a bottle of vinegar handy in your bag to help treat any stings.
WiFi hotspots are how people connect to the Internet in Tonga and you should expect slow connection speed, data limits and high prices.
See also International Telephone Calls
Tonga's international telephone code is 676. Telecommunications in Tonga are handled by two operators; Digicel Tonga and Tonga Communications Corporation. The latter operates a 900 MHz GSM-network.
Tonga Post handles international and domestic mail in the country.
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Ask SUSIQ a question about Tonga
I was born in Tonga and have lots of family in Tonga I can probably help you out with any information about Tonga.
Ask SLOAN a question about Tonga
Known as the,"Friendly Islands", since Captain Cook's time there. I spent 2 and 1/2 months there in 1999 and fell in with the locals, learned some Tongan, traveled a lot, learned many customs. Will give advice from many angles, this is a very safe and beautiful place with 170 islands, most uninhabited.
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