Typhoid Fever (TF) is a disease caused by Salmonella Enterica Typhi which is an intestinal bacteria. Human to human transmission occurs with the ingestion of food/water that has been contaminated by the fecal material of an infected person. Approximately 3-5% of persons infected will become chronic (versus acute) carriers of the disease. This means they may show no overt symptoms but continue to shed the bacteria and transmit TF to others.
Typhoid Fever is most prevalent in the developing areas of India, Asia, Africa, Central/South Americas and the Caribbean. Industrialized nations are not at risk because of the quality of their sanitation practices. Most cases of TF reported in industrialized areas are travelers who have returned from a developing country.
Two types of vaccine are available around the world.
*It must be noted that the vaccines (both oral and injectable) do not produce 100% immunity to TF. They do, however, produce a 50-80% effectiveness rate which greatly increases the survival of those infected. Receiving the pre-exposure inoculations can also lessen the severity and duration of the infection.
Typhoid Fever has an incubation period of 1-2 weeks post-exposure.
Most patients will experience decreased appetite, headache, generalized achiness, lethargy and sustained high fevers (39-40C/103-104F). These are often accompanied by abdominal pain, chest congestion and a rose-colored skin rash. Some patients will experience relapses of high fever. This is especially true in patients who have received antibiotic treatment. Laboratory analysis of stool and/or blood samples are required for accurate diagnosis.
The treatment for Typhoid Fever is administration of one or more antibiotics. Hospitalization may or may not be required depending on the severity of symptoms. The disease has a duration of 4-6 weeks. In some areas, the bacteria has become resistant to particular antibiotics so treatment will be area-dependent.
Symptoms will subside before the end of the treatment period. If you are being treated on an out-patient basis, certain precautions should be followed to prevent the spread of the disease to others.
as well as Hien (2%)
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