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Shoved down south beneath Saudi Arabia, where it is only a stone's throw away from the African continent, Yemen is a unique Middle Eastern destination with an architectural style unlike any other. Buildings of up to five stories tall, made of mud, brick or stone are a strange sight, but this is where Yemenis live, along with their animals. In Shibam, a town along the Wadi Hadhramawt (a seasonal river), the 500-odd collection of traditional skyscrapers has an astoundingly American look, despite being several centuries old. Yemen's capital, Sana'a, is supposed to have been established by Shem, Noah's son. Maybe so. In any case, it is a charming, ancient city with busy marketplaces and pretty mosques.
Yemen bewitches every visitor who ventures there, a veritable treasure chest of old Arabian culture and history, fascinating countryside and hospitable people. Unfortunately, travel to Yemen is at this time not particularly safe, so travellers should stay well aware of the political situation.
Yemen is a land laden with history. Between 2200 BC and the 6th century AD, Yemen was part of the Sabaean, Awsanian, Minaean, Qatabanian, Hadhramawtian, Himyarite, and several other kingdoms, which controlled the lucrative spice trade. It was known to the ancient Romans as Arabia Felix ("Happy Arabia") because of the riches its trade generated. For centuries, heavily laden caravans journeyed from the easternmost parts of Yemen to the Mediterranean, carrying the treasured cargo of frankincense. Perhaps the most famous convoy ever to come from Yemen was the Queen of Sheba's, when she visited King Solomon of Israel - though Ethiopians insist that the land of Sheba was located in Ethiopia. Throughout the generations, the people of Yemen have converted steep slopes in the western highlands into cultivable land with geometric clarity. This rugged region of Yemen was naturally well fortified against attack.
In the third century and again in the early seventh century, many Sabaean and Himyarite people migrated to North Africa and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, following the destruction of the Ma'rib Dam (sadd Ma'rib). In the 7th century, Islamic caliphs began to exert control over the area. After the caliphate broke up, the former North Yemen came under the control of imams of various dynasties, usually of the Zaidi sect, who established a theocratic political structure that survived until modern times.
Egyptian Sunni caliphs occupied much of North Yemen throughout the eleventh century. By the sixteenth century and again in the nineteenth century, North Yemen was part of the Ottoman Empire, and during several periods its imams exerted control over South Yemen.
In 1839, the British occupied the port of Aden and established it as a colony in September of that year. They also set up a zone of loose alliances (known as protectorates) around Aden to act as a protective buffer. North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and became a republic in 1962.
In 1967, the British withdrew from Aden. After the British withdrawal, the former Aden became known as South Yemen. The two Yemeni countries were formally united as the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.
In February 2011, a number of protest rallies against the government started, and clashes with police and pro-government supporters occured and killed dozens of people. These protest continued into March and were getting more and more violent. The ultimate goal is to add pressure for the current president to step up and have better economical and political situations in the near future.
Yemen is located in Western Asia, in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Red Sea. It lies south of Saudi Arabia and west of Oman, between latitudes 12° and 19° N and longitudes 42° and 55° E. A number of Red Sea islands, including the Hanish Islands, Kamaran, and Perim, as well as Socotra in the Arabian Sea, belong to Yemen. Many of the islands are volcanic. The country covers about 527,970 km2.
Yemen is divided into four geographic regions. The Tihama is the coastal plain that stretches along the coast. The Tihama opens onto the western highlands, a region that is remarkably reminiscent of Africa. This area receives the highest rainfall in Arabia and is heavily cultivated with bananas, papayas and lemons. Further east, the central highlands are a 2000 metre high plateau, where the country's capital Sana'a is located. Finally, the sandy desert of the Rub al Khali, the "Empty Quarter" intrudes into the south of the Arabian peninsula. Yemen shares international borders with Saudi Arabia and Oman.
Zabid is one of Yemen's oldest towns, boasting a university that is as old as the eight century. Zabid's domestic and military architecture and its urban plan make it an outstanding archaeological and historical site. Besides being the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century, the city played an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries because of its Islamic university and therefore is placed on the Unesco World Heritage List.
Directly north of Hodeidah behind the Ras Isa peninsula are many small islands basking in turquoise coloured water, a paradise for divers.
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The Socotra Archipelago is a group of four islands in the Indian Ocean, several hundred kilometres south of the Arabian peninsula. Socotra is the largest of the four islands, with Abd al Kuri, Samhah and Darsa making up the three smaller islands. The archipelago is a territory of Yemen and is well-known for its remarkable biodiversity. Over 90 percent of the archipelago's reptile species and snail species are found nowhere else, and about 37 percent of its plant species are unique to the islands. Much of the islands' land area is occupied by national parks and nature sanctuaries, while it also harbours an abundant and diverse marine life, with hundreds of species of reef-building corals, fish and crab, lobster and shrimp. The Socotra Archipelago was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site in July 2008.
Shibam dates back to the 16th century and is called 'the Manhattan of the desert' and not without reason. The towns has some fine and impressive high rise buildings which tower above other buildings in the city. Shibam is surrounded by a fortified wall and is one of the best examples of historic urban planning in Yemen. Therefore it is placed on the Unesco World Heritage List as well.
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The old city of Sana'a is located in the north of the country at an altitude of 2,200 m and has inhabited for more than 2,500 years. In the 7th and 8th centuries the city became a major centre for the propagation of Islam. There are many ancient buildings that witness this period, among which are 103 mosques and many hammams (bading and washing places) and thousand of houses built before the 11th century. It is on the Unesco World Heritage List as well and for further reading, check the Sana'a article.
Most of Yemen has a warm to hot climate, only in the higher parts in the nortwest are temperatures somewhat lower and thus more pleasant. Winters here are still mild though, only the highest tops can theoretically have a bit of snow, but that is rare. Part of Yemen contains the Rub al Khali desert, a large sandsea, where temperatures can hit 50 degrees in summer and winter nights can be very cold. This is generally also the driest part of the country.
Between the moutains/desert and the coastline is a fertile area with some more rain compared to many other parts of the country. On the southern coast rainfall is fairly low throughout the year, and most of the coastal area is (semi)desert. Temperatures and humidity are high throughout the year and the period from June to September is the most uncomfortable time, when maximum temperatures regularly rise to near 38 °C or more, with high humidity. Nights are sticky, just under 30 degrees Celcius. In winter, temperatures range between 22 at night and 28 during the day.
Also along the Red Sea coast the weather is hot and humid for most of the year. In this lowland the rainfall is rather low, averaging about 100mm and although sparce, there is no real distinct wet season, rain can fall in summer as well as winter.
Yemenia is the national airline of Yemen and is based at Sana'a International Airport (SAH). It operates surprisingly many flights and although they are mainly in the Middle East and a few destinations further in Asia like Kuala Lumpur, there are flights to and from Paris, London, Rome and Frankfurt as well. Johannesburg is another destinations of the airline. Other airlines serving Sana'a are mostly airlines of neighbouring countries, although Lufthansa flies to Frankfurt.
From Aden International Airport (ADE) Yemenia flies to countries in the region and to Rome. Few other airlines fly from here.
Borders with Saudi Arabia are closed to foreigners. To Oman, there are two main border crossings, both of which are open to foreigners and neither of which present any major problems. Transport from Sayun goes to the inland crossing at Makinat Shihan. The coastal route uses the Hawf crossing. On both routes, roads are brand new and in excellent condition and visas are available for most nationalities on the border with Oman.
Have your documentation and car insurance in order and be sure to have an international driving permit.
There are two border crossings (see above) to and from Oman, both of which are possible to cross by public transport. You can enter Yemen by bus from the Dhofar region in the southwest of Oman. Buses leaves Salalah on a regular basis to the border and onwards to Sayun (16 hours), or to Al-Ghayda (9 hours), in both cases twice a week. Though it’s possible to make the same journey in a series of shorter hops it costs more time and money and there really isn't that much to see and do en route. In both directions, visas are available at the border for most nationalities.
Although there is no fixed scheduled, there should be a couple of traditional dhow travelling between Mokha and Djibouti. It takes around 20 hours to cover this route. There might be boats available from Aden to Djibouti as well, but don't count on it.
Note: currently travelling outside Sana'a and its immediate environs, and this is only possible when travelling with a local or foreign travel agency! It is a temporary situation though, so things might have cleared up. Check the current situation.
There are no train services within Yemen.
Driving yourself is not really recommended in Yemen because of roads and driving skills both being in a poor condition, except a few nicely tarred roads between main cities. Hiring a car with a driver that doubles as a guide though is popular, affordable and a great way to explore the country. If you really want to drive yourself, bring an international driving permit and buy a temporary local one as well.
Regular intercity buses linke most major cities and towns, including Aden, Sana'a and Taiz.
Shared taxis (usually 7 seater Peugeots) leave when full an cover routes to smaller regional towns as well. It is faster but about 50% more expensive than buses.
There are no real useful passenger services in the country, but some local ferries might operate between local ports, or you might be able to hop on one of the local fishing boats or yachts. Remember that this area is very prone to attacks by pirates!
All nationals, except people from Iraq, Jordan and Syria, will require a visa to visit the country. More information about visas and processing at the nearest embassy or consulate.
Note that an Israeli passport stamp or any other proof of visiting the country will mean refusal of a visa or entering the country.
See also Money Matters
Arabic is the national language, with 5 different dialects spoken depending on the region. Other languages spoken in Yemen include Mehri with 70,643 speakers (2000 census), Soqotri with an estimated 43,000 speakers in the Socotra archipelago (2004 census) and Bathari (with an estimated total of only 200 speakers, including Oman).
From grade 7 onwards, foreign languages are taught in public schools although the quality in public schools is low. The private schools that use a British or American system teach English and produce proficient speakers, but Arabic is the dominant language of communication. Some private schools have also started teaching French. You will find less English speakers in Yemen than in nearby Arab countries like Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
See also Travel Health
There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Yemen. There is one exception though. You need a yellow fever vaccination if you have travelled to a country (7 days or less before entering Yemen) where that disease is widely prevalent.
It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Yemen. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended and when travelling longer than 2 weeks also typhoid. Vaccination against hepatitis B, tuberculosis and rabies are also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months.
Malaria is prevalent in the country, except in Sana'a and surroundings and above 2,000 metres. It is recommend to take malaria pills when going to these regions. Dengue occurs as well, so take other general precautions as well, including sleeping under a mosquito net and using repellant (50% DEET).
Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.
See also Travel Safety
See also International Telephone Calls
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Ask ester.c a question about Yemen
I can give some information ,cause i was working there for a time
Ask smbiz88 a question about Yemen
I can help any one interested to visit or come to Yemen. my help such as giving information , arranging tours , guiding , hotel reservation and all other travel advice and assistance , pls be happy to ask me .
Sufian Makhmari .
Sana'a - Yemen
Mobile: + 967 77804703 or + 967 1 261414
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