Travel Photography Photos tagged as and and architecture
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Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, officially Hohe Domkirche St. Peter und Maria) is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne (currently Cardinal Joachim Meisner), and is under the administration of the archdiocese of Cologne. It is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of German Catholicism in particular, of Gothic architecture and of the continuing faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. It is dedicated to Saint Peter and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The cathedral is a World Heritage Site, one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany, and Cologne's most famous landmark, described by UNESCO as an "exceptional work of human creative genius". Construction of Cologne Cathedral began in 1248 and took, with interruptions, until 1880 to complete – a period of over 600 years. It is 144.5 metres long, 86.5 m wide and its two towers are 157 m tall. The cathedral is one of the world's largest churches and the largest Gothic church in Northern Europe. For four years, 1880-84, it was the tallest structure in the world, until the completion of the Washington Monument. It has the second-tallest church spires, only surpassed by the single spire of Ulm Cathedral, completed 10 years later in 1890. Because of its enormous twin spires, it also presents the largest façade of any church in the world. The choir of the cathedral, measured between the piers, also holds the distinction of having the largest height to width ratio of any Medieval church, 3.6:1, exceeding even Beauvais Cathedral which has a slightly higher vault. Cologne's medieval builders had planned a grand structure to house the reliquary of the Three Kings and fit its role as a place of worship of the Holy Roman Emperor. Despite having been left incomplete during the medieval period, Cologne Cathedral eventually became unified as "a masterpiece of exceptional intrinsic value" and "a powerful testimony to the strength and persistence of Christian belief in medieval and modern Europe".
The Grote Markt or Grand Place (French) is the central square of Brussels. It is surrounded by guildhalls, the city's Town Hall, and the Breadhouse (Dutch: Broodhuis, French: Maison du Roi). The square is the most important tourist destination and most memorable landmark in Brussels, along with the Atomium and Manneken Pis. It measures 68 by 110 metres (220 ft × 360 ft), and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Botanischer Garten Düsseldorf (8 hectares), also known as the Botanischer Garten der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Düsseldorf, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Düsseldorf. It is located at Universitätsstraße 1, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and open daily in the warmer months; admission is free. The garden was established in 1974 and currently contains about 6000 species, with a focus on plants of temperate climates. Its outdoor gardens are organized as follows: * Geographic gardens - alpine garden, Central Europe, Caucasus, Northeast Asia, Japan, China, North America, and South America. * Ecological gardens - heath, moor, pine forest, fruit trees, and wild flowers. * Other gardens - systematic garden, medicinal garden, crops, cottage garden, conifers, summer flowers, plants of volcanic soils, morphology, endangered species, and carnivorous plants. The garden also contains a greenhouse complex including: * Central dome (approximately 1000 m², height 18 meters) - about 400 species from the Mediterranean region and Canary Islands, and also from Australia, New Zealand, Asia, South Africa, Chile, and California. * Orangery (opened 2004, 300 m², height 13 meters) - overwintering of plants from Mediterranean regions, conifers from the southern hemisphere, and Pyrophytes from Australia and South Africa. * South Africa house (opened 2008, 330 m²) - South African steppe vegetation.
In 1991 a co-operative-concurrent planning procedure with five international planning teams was held to design the park. Peter Latz’s design was significant, as it attempted to preserve as much of the existing site as possible (Diedrich, 69). Unlike his competitors, Latz recognized the value of the site’s current condition (Weilacher, 106). He allowed the polluted soils to remain in place and be remediated through phytoremediation, and sequestered soils with high toxicity in the existing bunkers. He also found new uses for many of the old structures, and turned the former sewage canal into a method of cleansing the site. The park is divided into different areas, whose borders were carefully developed by looking at existing conditions (such as how the site had been divided by existing roads and railways, what types of plants had begun to grow in each area, etc). This piecemeal pattern was then woven together by a series of walkways and waterways, which were placed according to the old railway and sewer systems. While each piece retains its character, it also creates a dialogue with the site surrounding it. Within the main complex, Latz emphasized specific programmatic elements: the concrete bunkers create a space for a series of intimate gardens, old gas tanks have become pools for scuba divers, concrete walls are used by rock climbers, and one of the most central places of the factory, the middle of the former steel mill, has been made into piazza. Each of these spaces uses elements to allow for a specific reading of time. The site was designed with the idea that a grandfather, who might have worked at the plant, could walk with his grandchildren, explaining what he used to do and what the machinery had been used for. At Landschaftspark, memory was central to the design. Various authors have addressed the ways in which memory can inform the visitor of a site, a concept that became prevalent during Postmodernism.
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