Al Manama

Travel Guide Middle East Bahrain Al Manama



Al Manama is the capital and largest city of Bahrain with roughly 180,000 people living within the city boundaries of which only about one third is Bahraini, the others are all expats. People have been living here since about 700 years, but not much of its historic past remains. Nowadays, it is a very modern albeit small city and the economic heart of the country. It is located in the north of the small country on a peninsula and is not of particular interest to travellers although it has good infrastructure, hotels and other facilities to keep your stay pleasant enough.



Sights and Activities

Bahrain National Museum

Bahrain National Museum opened in 1988, this museum features a stunning collection of archaeological artifacts. The collection covers over 6,000 years of history, featuring the history of the Bahrain area. There are also many old documents, including some tablets featuring a scene from the Epic of Gilgamesh. There is even a relocated burial mound from the desert for visitors to explore. In 1993 a new area of the museum was opened featuring the natural history of Bahrain.

Bahrain World Trade Center

The Bahrain World Trade Center are two towers with reflecting design located in the capital and were completed in 2008. Each tower is 240 metres high with 50 floors each. The coolest feature of these space age towers is that they are the first buildings in the world to incorporate wind power turbines into the design. The turbines provide 11% to 15% of the power for the buildings each year.

Other Sights and Activities

  • Bab Al Bahrain. 8AM-noon and 4:30PM-6PM. The Gateway of Bahrain, located in the Customs Square in Central Manama. The ground floor houses the tourist information office and a handicraft shop. Sightseeing bus tours depart from here daily at 9:30AM and 3:30PM.
  • Manama Souq (Behind Bab Al Bahrain building). 10AM-1PM and 4PM-9PM. The souq is network of small lanes that houses small stores selling everything from souvenirs and gifts to electronic products. The souq is also home to many gold and jewelry shops and tailors.
  • Al Fateh Grand Mosque, Jufair. One of the largest mosques in the world, capable of accommodating over 7,000 worshippers at a time and is the largest place of worship in Bahrain. It is also one of the top tourist attractions in Bahrain. The dome is the world's largest fibreglass dome and weighs over 60,000 kg. Al-Fateh includes the National Library which opened to the public in 2006. Tours are available in English and you are allowed to take pictures.
  • Corniche al-Fateh. On the east coast of the city, this pleasant seaside promenade offers good views of the skyscrapers to the south and planes taking off from the airport nearby. Plenty of fun fair rides for the kids and shisha bars for the older set.
  • Museum of Pearl Diving. Considered to be the most important historic building in Bahrain, it is the first official center for Bahrain Courts. The building was inaugurated by H.H. Sh. Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa, the past Governor of Bahrain in 1937. At that time the building comprised of four Supreme Courts, and three Directorates. In 1984 the building was transformed into a Traditional Heritage Center. The Museum of Pearl Diving is under the control of Directorate of Archaeology and Heritage, one of the major Directorates of Ministry of Cabinet Affairs and Information.

Tree of Life, 30 km south of Manama. Famous lonesome tree in the middle of a dry desert. Scientists haven't figured out how it survives, since no underground aquifer or spring exists under that area. In fact, all underground water sources are around the tree are contaminated with salt, suggesting the tree may in fact possess a mutation rendering it salt-tolerant.

  • Bahrain Fort. 8AM to 8PM. Bahrain Fort, on the island’s north coast, was built in the 14th century but excavations have revealed it was built on the site of Dilmun settlements, dating back to 3,000 BC. Recently renovated, and with new lighting at night, the Fort is an outstanding example of Bahrain’s varied and ancient history. Bahrain Fort, known in Arabic as Qalat Al Bahrain, was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
  • Bahrain Fort Museum (Qal'at al-Bahrain site museum). The first building comprises an exhibition hall and a child learning and training room whereas the second is made up of a conference hall, a cafe overlooking the sea, offices, a technicians suite and a dormitory for archeologists.
  • Bin Matar House: Place of Memory. The Bin Matar House is the latest in a series of projects by the Shaikh Ebrahim Center focusing on the restoration of traditional Bahraini houses associated with historic Bahraini families and leading cultural personalities. The house was designed by the well-known Bahraini architect Mussa Bin Hamad and built in 1905. It was used by Salman bin Hussein Matar as the venue for his permanent "majlis" (a room similar to a salon, used to entertain family and guests). By the 1940s, it was used a clinic by the famous physician Dr. Bandar Kab, and from the 1950s to the 1980s was used as the centre for the Eslah Club. The building then lay empty and in uninhabited, ready to be demolished to make way for a new construction. Today, the ceilings of the house are made of a combination of palm leaf and wood beam and the walls and floors have been authentically retouched.
  • Barbar Temple. This is an archaeological site located in the village of Barbar. Three temples have been discovered there, the oldest dating back to 3000 BC. The temples were thought to have been constructed to worship gods, as it contains two altars and a natural water spring. During its excavation tools, weapons, pottery, and many small pieces of gold were discovered.



Events and Festivals

  • Bahrain Grand Prix - Catch a Formula One Championship Race at this track, usually held in springtime (March).

Muharram - Islamic New Year

One of the most highly anticipated events of the year, a ban on alcohol is strictly enforced as a measure to promote purity. The Islamic New Year is celebrated in January, just as the Christian New Year, so the two events often merge together into one month of celebration.


On the 10th day of Muharram on the Islamic calendar, Bahrain’s Shi’a Muslim majority gather to commemorate the martyrdom of Hussain ibn Ali. For most, this is not a festival, but a sad period of intense grief and mourning. It is notable to see how the local population assembles and commemorates the day in a series of processions and traditions.

Milad Al Nabi

The most widely-celebrated festival in Bahrain, Milad Al Nabi honors the birth of the Prophet Mohammed. Uniting the two predominant Islamic factions on the island— the Sunnis and the Shi’ites— both revere the memory of this important Muslim figure, although they celebrate the occasion on different days. Taking place annually in April, processions, feasting, and storytelling set a backdrop of fervent celebration.

Independence Day

Each June, Independence Day is the time when all the citizens of Bahrain forget their differences in caste, religion, and social hierarchy and celebrate with fireworks, opera, and festivities that span day and night. It marks the day in 1971 when Bahrain regained its independence from Britain after being part a protectorate state for more than a hundred years.

Ramadan and Eid Al Fitr

The holy month of Ramadan is seen as the ‘festive season’ by Muslims, a period of charity and reflection. During daylight hours, Muslims are required to fast, but the evenings are especially pleasant as families go out to enjoy themselves over dinner and special Ramadan tents. The culmination of Ramadan is known as Eid Al Fitr, a three-day celebration of feasts and good deeds.




Bahrain has an arid climate with warm to hot weather. There is no rain whatsoever from May to October. From November to April, there are about 2 to 4 days a month with some rainfall, totalling less than 100mm of rain a year. Temperatures are pleasant from November to April. January is the coldest month with average maximum temperatures of 20 °C, dropping to 14 °C at night. July is the hottest month with daytime temperatures averaging 38 °C and nights still around 30 °C! Temperatures hitting 50 °C are not uncommon during summer and together with sometimes humid conditions makes this time almost unbearable.



Getting There

By Plane

Bahrain International Airport is where all international flights depart and arrive. The main national carrier is Gulf Air with flights both in the region as further away to many destinations in Asia, Europe and less so to other places. Main destinations include Paris, London, Istanbul, Bangkok, Shanghai and Delhi. Low-cost airline Bahrain Air is planning to serves about 10-15 destinations in the Middle East including Aleppo, Alexandria-El Nouzha, Amman, Assiut, Baghdad, Beirut, Chittagong, Damascus, Dhaka, Doha, Dubai, Khartoum, Kochi, Kozhikode, Kuwait, Luxor, Mashhad, Mumbai, Najaf and Riyadh.

To/from the airport
Taxis and shuttles buses are widely availalbe from the airport. There are a few bus lines which operate from downtown Al Manama. Actually, if you are willing to, you can even walk there from Al Manama, as it's just over an hour. Only do this when it's wintertime though!

By Car

The 26-km King Fahd Causeway connects Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. SABTCO's BahrainLimo taxis that seat up to four can take you across for prices starting from BD 30/SR300. Unofficial taxis, found hanging around bus stations at both ends, can offer slightly lower fares.

By Bus

Saudi Bahraini Transport Co runs buses between Manama and Dammam in Saudi Arabia 6 times daily, from where you can connect to Riyadh or Doha in Qatar.
Saudi Arabian Public Transport Co has buses from Manama to Amman in Jordan, Damascus in Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah in the UAE and to Kuwait.



Getting Around

By Car

Taxis are expensive, yet they are the only way to get around without renting a car. Extra charges are added to fares starting from the airport (2 Dinars) and any hotel (1 Dinar). Always use the meter or you will, guaranteed, get ripped off. A ride to the central parts of city will cost around 5-6 Dinars (US$13.30-$16.00).

Renting a car is far more efficient economically, but beware of driving styles you might not be used to in your home country. Manama is a small city on a small Island, you won't get lost for very long. Make sure to buy a map / it should cost around 0.50-1.00 Dinars (US$1.83-$3.65).




Restaurants in Manama run the gamut from cheap shawarma joints to 5 star restaurants. Cheap restaurants abound in the Adliya district.

Al-Abraaj, Adliya St, Manama, Bahrain. Perfect introduction for non-Arab folks to become accustomed to the Middle Eastern hospitality charm. Food is generous and tasty, and primarily from Lebanese/Turkish and Persian cuisines. Good value at BD 2-4 per head.
Al-Siraj. The second-best shwarma in Bahrain for only 300 fils.
Burjuman Coffee Shop, Lulu Centre 2F. The main selling point of this Filipino-run joint is its location right next to the SABTCO bus terminal, but the menu covers sandwiches, burgers, rice and noodles and portions are generous. Try the excellent fried hammour (local fish) with the fixings for BD 2. Main dishes BD 1-2.
Habara Snacks & Fish, ☏ +973 17 715 461. Osama bin Zaid Ave, Adliya. Great diner that cheerfully serves cheap fish and chips and other assorted snacks.
Bahay Kubo, Bldg 822, Rd 723, Area 307, Gudiyabia (Behind the Middle East Hotel and across from the Indian), ☏ +973 17231996. Daily from 10:30AM to 10:00PM. Traditional style Filipino restaurant for dine in, take out and delivery. Bahay Kubo also offers a private function room with karaoke less than BD 5.
Café Lilou's, Manama, Bahrain, ☏ +973 17 714 440. Sa-Th 8AM-11PM, F 10AM-10:30PM. Paris style interiors, popular with ex-pats and locals. Excellent French-café fare, including large salads and delicious cakes. Caters for groups, take out, cateringservices, outdoor seating. Breakfast,lunch, dinner, coffee, drinks US$10-30.
Lanterns, ☎ +973 17 59 0591, +973 17 591807. An atmospheric Indian restaurant with great food and lovely decor next to Burgerland Roundabout in Budaiya.
Nando's (Portuguese), Adliya, ☏ +97 31 771 2445, ✉
Upstairs Downstairs, a long time classic Bahrain restaurant. Smooth jazz band, music videos and great yet pricey food.
Senor Pacos, ☏ +973 17 725 873. Um Al Hassam, Manama, Bahrain. An atmospheric Mexican restaurant with great ambience and lovely decor on the Road opposite KFC in Um al Hassam. They have their own guitarist and vocalist singing on most evenings.
Trader Vic's, a Polynesian dining/drinking experience, located on the grounds of the Ritz Carlton.
Zahle, Gulf Hotel, Al Juffair Street. ☎ +973 17 746 417, +973 17 746 418. Serving impeccable Lebanese food with daily buffets and live entertainment.




Manama has a busy nightlife by Gulf standards. The main districts are Adliya, Hoora, Juffair and Business District.

  • Digger's, Delmont Hotel. Australian-themed sports pub in the downtown. Popular with single male expats.
  • Gold Club. Arabic night club featuring Russian girls doing their interpretation of traditional belly dancing.
  • Hard Rock Cafe.
  • Harvesters, King Faisal Highway (Crowne Plaza). Very popular pseudo-British pub offering cold beer, pub grub and a Filipino band distinguished more by the singers' skimpy outfits than musical talent. Beers from BD 2.5.
  • JJ's (Al Bustan Hotel). The largest Irish pub in the city.
  • Queensbury Arms. Another hot spot, great prices on drinks.
  • Sherlock Holmes (Gulf Hotel). Mock-British pub.
  • Warbler's. Expat sports pub. This is a private club, but the bouncers at the door seem more interested in keeping Arabs out than in checking membership cards.
  • Wrangler's, Best Western Juffair Hotel. American-themed bar and dance club. Popular with expats and US sailors.
  • Buffalo Bar, Avenue 22, Juffair (located in the California Hotel). Busy bar in Juffair, has a residend live band, serves drinks and pub food (burgers, fries, etc.).




  • Al Burge Hotel, Municipality Road, ☏ +973 17 210227, fax: +973 17 223976. Check-in: noon, check-out: 2PM. If cost is more important than comfort for you, then the BD 10 double room with bathroom should make you happy. Do not expect fancy stuff such as quietness or toilet paper, but it is fairly clean and fairly well located, in the street behind Gold City. Do try the bed before taking the room. Single females are not permitted. 10BD.
  • Awal Hotel, Al Khalifa Rd. Located in the main commercial & business district, 10 mins drive from the International Airport and a short walking distance from the Bahrain seashore and the upcoming Financial harbor.
  • Bahrain International Hotel, Manama. Three-star hotel that is of average quality, but in a convenient location for travellers. Free airport transfer, breakfast and wifi. BD 30 single room.
  • Al Bander Hotel & Resort, Riffa Resort (near Sitra), ☏ +973 17 701 201, ✉ Al Bander Hotel & Resort is a popular destination for families. It offers 44 chalets and 36 cabanas, each with a comfortable homely feel. Restaurants and cafes, serving continental, Oriental, Chinese, Thai and Persian cuisine. The hotel’s busy marina is ideal for the boat-owner, and is well equipped with a fuelling station and mooring facilities. The resort has lots of watersports facilities, as well as 10 swimming pools in different places around the resort. Babysitting services, bars, beach, business centre, restaurants, swimming pools. Satellite TV. edit
  • Al Safir Hotel, Juffair, ☏ +973 17 827 999. Standard rooms with a choice of twin or double beds. It offers comprehensive business and banqueting facilities, including the latest audio-visual equipment, telephone and UPS points in every room and an inbuilt PA system. The hotel also has two restaurants, a swimming pool and a fitness centre. Babysitting service, bars, business centre, restaurants, swimming pool. 24-hr room service, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • Best Western Elite Hotel, Juffair, ☏ +973 17 827 600. Best Western Elite Hotel Bahrain is conveniently located just 5 min from downtown shopping complexes and 10 km from Bahrain International Airport. It is also close to the Gulf International Convention and Exhibition Centre and the US Naval Base. 96 guestrooms are spacious and well furnished with a coffee maker and internet access. 5 outlets for dining and entertainment. Conference and banqueting facilities for up to 140 persons. Health and leisure facilities include a rooftop swimming pool and a fully equipped health and fitness centre. Babysitting services, bars, gym, restaurants, swimming pool. 24-hr room service, mini bar, internet, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • Elite Suites Hotel, Seef District (9 km from the airport), ☏ +973 17 558 888. Luxurious hotel with 215 spacious guest rooms and suites. 5 minutes from the Bahrain International Exhibition Centre and at close proximity to various shopping malls. Ooutdoor swimming pool and a gym. Babysitting services, business centre, meeting rooms, gym, kids’ club, restaurants, swimming pool, 24 hr room service, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • Golden Tulip Bahrain (formerly Hilton Bahrain)), Old Palace Rd, Manama 1090, ☏ +973 17 535 000. Standard hotel that maybe in need of a renovation. Rooms are clean and the staff are amiable however the dull façade and decor may be depressing to people who are lodging here for more than a couple of days. One of the few redeeming qualities is that it has the only authentic Japanese restaurant in Bahrain. The hotel was renovated in 2008.
  • Gulf Gate Hotel, Manama (10 min drive from Bahrain International Airport), ☏ +973 17 210 210. 125 rooms and suites. Located in central Manama, the commercial centre of Bahrain. Cafés, a restaurant, night clubs and bar. 2 minutes walk from the main souk and shopping centres. Business centre, gym, restaurants, spa, swimming pool. 24-hr room service, internet, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • Gulf Pearl Hotel, Bldg. 169, Blk. 304 Rd.353, ☏ +973 17 224 466. A/C rooms and suites equipped with Internet connection, a private toilet and shower, mini-bar, and a cable television. Swimming pool, restaurant/café/bar, fitness room, and a business centre. Best rates on official website start at BD 19.
  • Mashtan Hotel, Bldg 3578, Rd. 471, Blk. 304, ☏ +973 17 217 333. A/C rooms with private toilet and bath with shower, high-speed Internet connection, cable TV and mini-bar. Swimming pool, fitness room, business center, and airport transfer. Best rates on official website start at BD 19.
  • Mercure Grand Hotel (2 km from the city centre of Manama, and 6 km from Bahrain International Airport), ☏ +973 17 584 400, fax: +973 17 584 401, ✉ Recipient of 2007 MENA Travel Awards (Silver Best Four Star Business/Corporate Hotel Category). In the Seef business district. 72 suites and 48 family suites. Nearby to Seef and Al Aali malls. Restaurant, 2 bars, meeting rooms, health club, sauna, steam room, massage facility with gymnasium and a swimming pool. Private parking is available.
  • Novotel Al Dana Resort (5 km from Bahrain International Airport.), ☏ +973 17 298 008, fax: +973 17 298 338, ✉ Traditional Arabic architecture and design with contemporary fittings and comfort. 172 rooms. Close to the diplomatic area and business centre. The hotel offers a variety of restaurants, bars and meeting rooms. Babysitting service, private beach, watersports, swimming pool, fitness centre, kids’ club, kids’ pool. 24-hr room service, internet, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • Pars International Hotel, Juffair, ☏ +973 17 814 777, fax: +973 17 814778, ✉ Located in Juffair's commercial and residential area and overlooking Manama Bay. Standard and deluxe rooms to regal suites. Lobby bar, a disco, Arabic night club. Restaurant and 24 hr coffee shop. Conference and banqueting facilities including a ballroom suitable for functions and accommodating up to 300 people. Swimming pool, sauna, steam room and fitness centre. Parking is available for all guests. Swimming pool, spa, fitness centre, business centre. 24-hr room service, internet, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities. edit
  • Phoenicia Tower Hotel, Building no. 299, Road no. 1910, Block 319, City Center, ☏ +973 1731 1666. Individually controlled A/C, private toilet and shower with bathtub, cable TV, and internet access. Swimming pool, jacuzzi and sauna, fitness room/gym. From US$94.
  • Ramada Bahrain, Building 88 Road 351 Block 326 | Adliya, Bani Otbah Ave. Airport transfers free of charge if you email in advance. Has pool on site but the cleanliness of the pool is questionable.
  • Somerset Al Fateh Bahrain, Juffair, ☏ +973 1781 1889, ✉ Its 118 apartments, which range from one to three bedroom and four two-bedroom penthouse suites, are furnished with contemporary décor and modern fittings. Wi-Fi is available in the apartment and lobby.
  • Crowne Plaza Bahrain (formerly Holiday Inn), King Faisal Highway (Diplomatic Quarter, a few km east of the city center on the road to the airport), ☏ +973 17 531 122, fax: +973 17 530 154, ✉ Gracefully aging sprawling low-rise complex. The Astroturf-surrounded pool is rather depressing, and the hotel's main draw seems to be the popular Harvesters pub (see Drink). Largish gym (men and women have separate facilities), decent breakfast, service can be mixed. BD 100.
  • The Dragon Hotel & Resort, Amwaj Islands, ☏ +973 1603 3833, fax: +973 1603 3844, ✉ A secluded getaway along the Amwaj Islands waterfront. Views of the sea and infinity pools. Modern rooms and stylish amenities. Suites, chalets and villas. Each suite has its own private terrace that overlooks the pool and sea. Deluxe chalets have two levels and 3-4 bedrooms. 3 level villas have 4 bedrooms and private terrace, garden, Jacuzzi and swimming pool and include elevators, 2 kitchenettes, multiple living areas and extensive storage space. Children's pools and play areas provided. Water sport activities offered by the hotel such as jet skiing. Onsite 2 dining establishments and 2 waterfront lounges that attract stylish visitors from across Bahrain.
  • Banyan Tree Al Areen, Al Areen. Attention to detail and opulent surroundings. The staff are welcoming and attentive, without being overwhelming, and the food is good.
  • Ritz-Carlton Bahrain, ☏ +973 1758 0000. 7 stories of luxurious rooms with a modern design. The Club Lounge restaurant features five different food presentations a day, and includes an American breakfast. Stunning views of the Arabian Gulf from the rooms.
  • Sheraton Bahrain Hotel & Towers, 6 Palace Avenue (7 km Bahrain International Airport), ☏ +973 17 533533. Check-in: 3PM, check-out: noon. In the heart of the business and diplomatic area. 260 comfortable guest rooms and suites, most of which have been recently renovated with a stylish and contemporary décor. All rooms have the Sheraton Sweet SleeperSM Bed. Soie Chinese Restaurant and Al Safir Restaurant with international buffets and á la carte selections. Bar with live entertainment.
  • The Regency InterContinental, King Faisal Highway (10 min from the airport.), ☏ +973 17 227777, fax: +973 17 229 929. Check-in: 2PM, check-out: noon, late check-out available. 321 rooms and a variety of suites, including the Summit, deluxe suites, royal and presidential suites. 5 restaurants offer a range of international and themed cuisine, plus a number of bars with live entertainment. Babysitting services, bars, business centre, gym, kids’ club pool, restaurants, spa, sports facilities, swimming pool, 24-hr room service, internet, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities (on request).
  • The Gulf Hotel, Aliya. (15 min from Bahrain International Airport and 5 min from City Centre), ☏ +973 17 713 000, fax: +973 1771 3040, ✉ The biggest 5-star hotel on the Island with more than 35 years of experience. Combines luxury, tradition, comfort and service. 366 rooms in total. 12 restaurants, lounges and bars.
  • The Moevenpick Hotel, 143 Road 2403, Muharraq (Opposite the airport), ☏ +973 17 460 000, fax: +973 17 460 001, ✉ Swiss flair and traditional Arabian hospitality. Overlooks a lagoon and features a fine dining restaurant, international bar, atrium lobby restaurant, pool bar, parking area and two outdoor tennis courts. 7 min driving distance from the city. Babysitting service, business centre, gym, spa, swimming pool, tennis courts. 24-hr room service, internet, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities (on request).
  • The Diplomat Radisson Blu Hotel, Residence & Spa (10 min from the airport.), ☏ +973 17 531666, fax: +973 17 530843, ✉ 246 rooms in three styles: Classic, Maritime and Italian. 3 exclusive "Royal Club" executive floors and a variety of suites. Claims to have Bahrain's biggest rooms, fully renovated and all with sea view. Meeting facilities, a selection of restaurants and entertainment options. Babysitting services, bars, business centre, gym, kids’ club,, sports facilities, swimming pool. 24-hr room service, internet, mini bar, satellite TV, tea and coffee making facilities.
  • L'Hotel, Al Seef District, King Mohammed 6 Ave, ☏ +973 17 567 222, fax: +973 17 567 227. New, stylish, near shopping areas and close to town. 90 rooms. Business centre, VIP room facilities, wifi, car rental, sauna, hammam and outdoor swimming pool. Restaurant with French-Mediterranean cuisine at “L'avenue”, managed by the famous Chef Philippe Marc. (Hotel closed without notice at end of June 2012, the management did not even bother to inform 'guests' who had reservations.)
  • Swiss International Palace Hotel, Gudaibiya Avenue, ☏ +973 17296660, ✉ 84 rooms, a variety of dining options and evening venues. Free Wi-Fi is available in the guests’ rooms & public areas. There's an outdoor pool and a gym. From BD 24 per night.



Keep Connected


See also International Telephone Calls

The country calling code to Bahrain is: 973
To make an international call from Bahrain, the code is: 00



as well as Lavafalls (2%), dr.pepper (1%)

Al Manama Travel Helpers

We don't currently have any Travel Helpers for Al Manama

This is version 14. Last edited at 8:41 on Jul 10, 19 by Utrecht. 7 articles link to this page.

Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, content of this article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License