Democratic Republic of Congo

Travel Guide Africa Democratic Republic of Congo

Were you looking for the other Congo? That's the Republic of Congo.



Monstor scooters

Monstor scooters

© robandpol

Formerly known as Zaire, the Democratic Republic of Congo is Africa’s second largest country and the fourth most populated nation in Africa. The Democratic Republic of Congo is extremely rich in natural resources, but political instability, a lack of infrastructure and a culture of corruption have limited development, extraction and exploitation efforts. The land is home to great stretches of savannah, as well as dramatic volcanic mountain peaks in the east.

Currently, the situation is volatile, particularly for foreigners. However, most instability is due to possible spontaneous riots and police action in Kinshasa, or in rebel active areas along the Burundi, Rwanda, and South Sudan borders. The lack of communication between outposts of the national government means that interior provinces will routinely inspect passports. However, primary danger within the Congo Rainforest Basin area is not unfriendly villagers or bothersome government authorities, but bacteriological and transportation hazards. There are virtually no facilities for rescue or medical treatment, so visitors must prepare for this. For those adventure tourists determined to go to the DRC, the best approach is to contact your hotel in Kinshasa and arrange for a "letter of invitation", as this is required by most visa applications, depending upon nationality. Proof of financial responsibility is also required.

Warning: As of 9 October 2018, according to the WHO, 122 deaths due to the often fatal Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever have been reported in seven health zones in North Kivu Province (Beni, Butembo, Kalunguta, Mabalako, Masereka, Musienene and Oicha), and three health zones in Ituri Province (Mandima, Komanda and Tchomia). Travellers should seek medical advice before travel.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo remains one of the most underdeveloped countries in Africa and a significant portion of the DRC is not safe for any travel or sightseeing. In addition to active conflicts, the country has very limited health care and tourism facilities, even by African standards. More details can be found in the Stay safe section.

The regions of North & South Kivu have been in a state of continuous conflict since the early 1990s. The North/South Kivu regions should be considered off limits by all visitors, except for aid/humanitarian workers who (and whose sponsor) are keenly aware of the risks.

The north-eastern part of the country, just about everywhere north and east of the cities of Kisangani & Buma is unsafe due to active rebel groups responsible for low-level violence. Also the Kasaï region is very unsafe.

In addition to the rebel groups and criminals, in 2018 there is still a severe risk of any public gathering turning violent because of the political situation. And if the situation were to deteriorate, leaving the country would probably be difficult. Keeping a stock of essential supplies is recommended.

Those visiting for business, research, or international aid purposes should consult with their organization and seek expert guidance before planning a trip. Travellers visiting on their own should consult the advice of your embassy for any travel to the DRC.



Brief History

The area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 10,000 years ago and settled in the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. by Bantus from present-day Nigeria. During its history the area has also been known as Congo, Congo Free State, Belgian Congo and Zaire. The Kingdom of Kongo was a powerful kingdom that existed from the 14th to the 18th century. It was the dominant force in the region until the arrival of the Portuguese. Second in importance was the Anziku Kingdom. The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through the Association Internationale Africaine, a non-governmental organization. Leopold was the sole shareholder and chairman. The state included the entire area of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo.

On November 15, 1908 King Léopold II of Belgium formally relinquished personal control of the Congo Free State. The renamed Belgian Congo came under the administration of the Belgian parliament. The Belgian administration might be most charitably characterized as paternalistic colonialism. Roman Catholic and Protestant churches dominated the education system and the curricula reflected Christian and Western values. In 1948 Christian missions controlled 99.6% of educational facilities. They had little regard for native culture and beliefs. Native schools provided a mainly religious and vocational education.

The Congo was granted its independence on June 30, 1960, adopting the name "Republic of the Congo" (République du Congo). As the French colony of Middle Congo (Moyen Congo) also chose the name Republic of Congo upon receiving its independence, the two countries were more commonly known as Congo-Léopoldville and Congo-Brazzaville, after their capital cities. President Mobutu changed the country's official name to Zaire in 1966. The current name was adopted in 1997. During the first 6-7 years of the Democratic Republic of Congo, there were two wars, under the rule of Laurent-Desire Kabila and later his son Joseph (from 2001 onwards). Upon taking office Kabila called for multilateral peace talks to end the war. He partly succeeded in February 2001 when a further peace deal was brokered between Kabila, Rwanda and Uganda leading to the apparent withdrawal of foreign troops. UN peacekeepers, MONUC, arrived in April 2001. Talks between Kabila and the rebel leaders, held in Sun City, lasted a full six weeks, beginning in April 2002. In June they signed a peace accord in which Kabila would share power with former rebels. By June 2003 all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out of Congo.

DR Congo had a transitional government in July 2003 until the election was over. A constitution was approved by voters and on July 30, 2006 the Congo held its first multi-party elections since independence in 1960. After this Joseph Kabila took 45% of the votes and his opponent Jean-Pierre Bemba took 20%. That was the origin of a fight between the two parts from August 20-22, 2006 in the streets of the capital, Kinshasa. Sixteen people died before policemen and UN mission MONUC took control of the city. A new election was held on October 29, 2006, which Kabila won with 70% of the vote. Bemba has publicly commented on election "irregularities," despite the fact that every neutral observer has praised the elections. On December 6, 2006 the Transitional Government came to an end as Joseph Kabila was sworn in as President.




The Democratic Republic of Congo is situated at the heart of sub-Saharan Africa and is bounded by (clockwise from the southwest) Angola, the South Atlantic Ocean, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania across Lake Tanganyika, and Zambia. The country lies between latitudes 6°N and 14°S, and longitudes 12° and 32°E. It straddles the Equator, with one-third to the north and two-thirds to the south. The size of Congo, 2,345,408 square kilometres, is slightly greater than the combined areas of Spain, France, Germany, Sweden, and Norway.

A massive expanse of lush rainforest covers most of the vast, undulating central basin of the river, increasingly interrupted along shorelines by logging and by slash and burn agriculture that create savannas as the exceptionally deep Congo River and it's tributaries course their way toward the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The Congo River is bounded on the south by an escarpment that leads to a plateau and complex forest and savanna along low ridge lines that are source of the network of fast moving tributaries. The central rainforest basin merges into savannas in the south and southwest, and by low mountainous terraces of red volcanic rock and expanse of sand and savanna in the west, and dense grasslands extend beyond the Congo River in the north. High, glaciated mountains are found in the extreme eastern region (Rwenzori Mountains). The name for the Congo state is derived in part from the river. The river basin (meaning the Congo River and all of its myriad tributaries) occupies nearly the entire country and an area of nearly 1,000,000 km2. The Congo River is believed by scientists to be one of the oldest of the world's great rivers, having once been joined to the Amazon prior to the drift of continents. In contrast to the new Amazon, which effectively flows "backwards" from the rising Andes, and is thus a slow moving shallow river at sea level, the Congo remains it's deep fast moving course along a high plateau toward waterfalls quite near the mouth at the Atlantic ocean.

On 17 January 2002 Mount Nyiragongo erupted in Congo, with the lava running out at 64 km/h and 46 metres wide. One of the three streams of extremely fluid lava flowed through the nearby city of Goma, killing 45 and leaving 120,000 homeless. Four hundred thousand people were evacuated from the city during the eruption. The lava poisoned the water of Lake Kivu, killing fish. Only two planes left the local airport because of the possibility of the explosion of stored petrol. The lava passed the airport but ruined the runway, entrapping several airplanes. Six months after the 2002 eruption, nearby Mount Nyamulagira also erupted. Mount Nyamulagira also erupted in 2006 and again in January 2010.




  • Western DRC (Kinshasa) - home to the capital Kinshasa and the nation's only port at Matadi. Mostly grazing lands since logging has removed mosts forest expanses west of the Kasai River.
  • Katanga - mostly fertile plateaus for agriculture & ranching, home to much of the country's recoverable minerals; de facto independent from 1960-1966 during the "Katanga Crisis".
  • Kasai - significant diamond mining, not much else.
  • Kivu (Bukavu, Goma, Kahuzi-Biega National Park,Virunga National Park,) - influenced by neighbouring Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda this region is known for its volcanoes, mountain gorillas, and, tragically, its unfathomable conflicts.
  • Mai Ndombe Distinctive for the nation's largest Lake Mai Ndombe, and a multitude of other low lying swampy lakes to its southeast. The confluence of several of the largest tributaries of the Congo River - the Kasai, Fimi, Lukenie, and Lokoro Rivers - all funnel out through the Kwa River into the Congo within Mai Ndombe.
  • Congo Basin (Garamba National Park, Maiko National Park, Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Salonga National Park) - the DRC's portion and the majority of the world's second largest jungle after the Amazon.




  • Kinshasa - the capital and largest city
  • Lubumbashi - in the southeast, second largest city, economically independent from Kinshasa, and most likely to secede from the DRC.
  • Mbandaka - largest city located in the heart of the Congo Rainforest Basin. Major lumber exporting port. Transportation is exclusive to air or boat options.
  • Kisangani - larger city located in central north of the country, and one of the world's most remote for land transportation options.
  • Boma -
  • Bukavu - Scenic central east border city on south end of Lake Kivu. Located on border of Rwanda, and has immigration office.
  • Goma - in the central east, gateway to the mountain gorillas, and principle customs and immigration city on the east side of the DRC.
  • Matadi - in the far west, the only major port with direct access to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Mbuji-Mayi - central DRC
  • Kolwezi
  • Kikwit - principal city between Kinshasa and Lubumbashi in the south. Available by bus from both cities along the nation's only "highway".
  • Kananga - central DRC
  • Lokolama - Upper Lokoro River Mai Ndombe Province
  • Inongo - largest city on Lake Mai Ndombe, and capital of the region.
  • Bandundu - provincial capital of Bandundu province located on the Kwilu near its confluence with the Kasai. Farthest city to the east serviced by bus from Kinshasa, also only city in Bandundu or Mai Ndombe Provinces to have a bank ATM.
  • Nioki - colonial lumber town and port city at the bottom of Lake Mai Ndombe, actually located on the Fimi River.
  • Bolobo - port city with customs and immigration office for visitors from the Republic of Congo, on the Congo about halfway between Kinshasa and Mbandaka.
  • Oshwe - regional town on the upper Lukenie know for it's community conservation efforts to save rainforest.
  • Kalemi - port city on Lake Tanganyika, with a passport stamp customs office.



Sights and Activities

Okapi Wildlife Reserve

The Okapi Wildlife Reserve is located in the Ituri Forest in the northeast of the country near Sudan and Uganda and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is mainly a protected forest because of its special inhabitant: the Okapi. This animal is widely known because of its mix of zebra and giraffe characteristics and although it bears striped markings reminiscent of the zebra, it is most closely related to the giraffe. Unfortunately, because of the political and economical situation in this part of the country, the reserve sees just a few visitors and several of its staff have been gone since poachers and others entered the reserve. Apart from the Okapi, many monkey species and the forest elephant live here as well as several local tribes who actually live in peace with the natural environment.

Virunga National Park

Gorillas in the mist

Gorillas in the mist

© Traveller76

The Virunga National Park is what Bwindi Impenetrable is to Uganda or the Volcanoes National Park to Rwanda: a large protected mountainous wilderness, mainly to preserve the last several hundreds or so of the Mountain Gorilla and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the late seventies of the twentieth century. Chimpanzees, forest elephants, giraffe and even okapi can be found here, although there numbers have diminished in recent years because of the unstable political and economical situation. Still, travellers who can't get a permit in Rwanda or Uganda to visit the mountain gorillas, might be lucky to get one here as chances are better and it is cheaper, 'only' 350 USD compared to 500 USD in the other two countries. The main access point is from Rwanda to Goma but entries from Uganda might be possible as well, just check in advance regarding the visa and safety regulations during the time you will visit.

Mount Nyiragongo

Virunga volcanos - view from the Sabinyo hike

Virunga volcanos - view from the Sabinyo hike

© aidni

Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano, located in the Virunga Mountains, just within the borders of the Virunga National Park. It's just about 20 kilometres north of Lake Kivu and the populous city of Goma and therefore is one of the 16 potential deadliest volcanoes in the world, which are on the Decade Volcano List(see below). The top of the volcano lies at 3,470 metres above sea level and the main crater is about 2 kilometres wide. The crater lake is one of the most voluminous in the world and before the major eruption of 1977 the depth was around 600 metres, although it's considerably less now. The volcano has another major eruption in 2002 (lava flowed down to the Goma airport and even into Rwanda!) and again has been active continuously since 2010, but this activity is limited to the crater area. It's a popular day trip for hikers and can even be undertaken from nearby Rwanda.

Kahuzi-Biega National Park

The Kahuzi-Biega National Park is located in the east of the country near Lake Kivu and the border with Rwanda and together with the frontier are of the DRC, Rwanda and Uganda, forms one of the last remaining areas to preserve the mountain gorilla. The park is not as much visited as the other mountain gorilla parks and numbers may have declined more seriously here since civil war started. It also a Unesco World Heritage Site.

Salonga National Park

Also a Unesco World Heritage Site, the Salonga National Park protects the largest tropical rainforest reserve in Africa and is located in the Congo Basin. Animals here include species like bonobos (one of four human apes) and rare special species like salonga monkeys, Tshuapa red colobus Zaire peacocks, forest elephants, and African slender-snouted crocodiles. Although you are likely to see many animals here you won't see anywhere else in Africa, the park is not visited that often and safety forms the main problem for travellers these days.

Garamba National Park

Garamba National Park, located in Orientale Province, was established in 1938. One of Africa's oldest National parks, it was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Garamba is (or at least was) the home to the world's last known wild population of Northern White Rhinoceros. Due to poaching of the rhinos within the park, it was added to the list of World Heritage in Danger in 1996. The park is also well known for its African elephant domestication programme started in the 1960s, which managed to train tourist-rideable animals.



Events and Festivals

Commemoration of the Martyrs of Independence

This annual celebration is held every January 4th. Also known as Martyr’s Day, the Commemoration of the Martyrs of Independence is held as a double event to remember the victims of violence against human rights and also the martyrs of justice.

National Heroes’ Day

Referred to as “Heroes’ Day,” this public holiday is celebrated annually on January 17. It commemorates the death of Patrice Lumumba, the Congo’s popular leader. It is one of the two festivals that commemorate Lumumba’s fight for human dignity in the region.

National Liberation Day

The Congo observes National Liberation Day every year on May 17. This is a public holiday, so all offices and most businesses are closed. It pays tribute to the efforts of the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo rebel group who fought the government during the second war. MLC was led by Jean-Pierre Bemba, the son of Bemba Saolona, a Congolese billionaire. Street parades and cultural shows are held.

Independence Day

Independence Day is celebrated every June 30.

Parents’ Day

The world observes Parents’ Day every August 1, but in the Congo, it is considered a public holiday. Locals are enthusiastic about giving greeting cards and gifts to their family.

Youth Day

The Congo celebrates Youth Day on October 14. During this national day, different organizations host sporting events and other festivities for young people.

Army Day

An observed as a national holiday, the country honors its military forces every November 17.


Unlike most Western countries, the Congo treats Christmas as a religious festival. It is less commercialized, so presents are uncommon. On Christmas Eve, churches stage musicals with at least five to six choir performances and nativity plays. Some communities enjoy festivities until dawn when Christmas Day services start at 9:00am Families typically prepare a feast at home, and for those who can afford it, pork and chicken are staples.




Apart from the higher parts of the country, the Democratic Republic of Congo has a tropical climate with generally hot and humid conditions. Rainfall is high throughout the country but there are some differences.

The northern parts of the country (for example Kisangani) has rain during every month, but with two season when rain is heaviest and more probable. These periods are March - April and September - November, though differences with other months are not that big. January is quite dry. Temperatures here are around 30º C during the day and 20 °C at night with no considerable monthly variation.

In the south on the other hand there is single wet season from November to March (for example Lubumbashi). Here, May to September are almost completely dry. In the case of Lubumbashi temperatures are around 25 °C to 30 °C year round, but night can be very cool during the dry season, averaging only around 6 °C or 7 °C. From October to April, nights are considerably warmer, around 15 to 16 degrees on average. Of course, here this also has to do with altitude (1300 meters above sea level). Lower areas have warmer nights (and days).

Kinshasa has temperatures of around 30 °C during the day, 20 °C at night and there is a rainy season from November to April while June to September is almost completely dry as well.

A small coastal strip of the country has roughly the same climate as northern coastal areas of Angola, with warm weather but much less rain compared to places inland.



Getting there


N'Djili International Airport (FIH) near the capital Kinshasa is the main international airport in the country. Hewa Bora Airways is one of the largest airlines in the country, flying to and from Brussels, Douala, Johannesburg, Lagos and Lomé. Air France flies between Kinshasa and Paris. Other destinations with several airlines are Brussels, Harare, Bujumbura Brazzaville, Kigali, Pointe-Noire, Addis Ababa, Nairobi, Casablanca and Luanda.
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines flies to Kinshasa from Amsterdam via Nairobi.

By Train

There is one line entering the DRC from Zambia. However, trains are very infrequent and unless you absolutely have to take the train for some reason, you should enter by road/air. The line reaches Lubumbashi and continuing to Kananga.

By Car

Decent paved roads connect the Katanga region with Zambia and Kinshasa down to Matadi and Angola. Roads enter the DRC from Uganda, Rwanda, & Burundi, although travelling far past the border is very difficult and parts of the Eastern DRC remain unsafe. There are ferries to take vehicles across the Congo River from Congo-Brazzaville and it may be possible to find a ferry from the CAR to the remote, unpaved roads of the northern DRC. Do not entirely trust your map. Many display an unfortunate wishful thinking. Roads are frequently washed out by rains, or were simply never built in the first place. Ask a local or a guide whether or not a route is passable.

By Bus

Crossing to Rwanda is possible but only the one between Gisenyi and Goma is considered relatively safe at the moment. The one at the southern end of Lake Kiva, between Cyangugu and Bukavu is less safe, mainly on the DRC side. Crossings with Uganda are open but it's easier and safer to travel to Rwanda where it's just a short hop to the DRC and Goma.

By Boat

Boats travel across the Congo River between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of Congo, roughly every two hours or so.



Getting around


Note that flights with any of the airlines of the DRC is amongst the most risky travelling business in the world. Although most planes of course will make it to the destination, accident rates are relatively high and all airlines are not welcome in Europe for example. That said, it is sometimes the only way and maybe even safer than travelling overland as this will impose risks of bandits or road accidents.

Hewa Bora Airways flies between Kinshasa, Lubumbashi and Mbuji Mayi and Wimbi Dira Airways between Gbadolite, Gemena, Goma, Isiro, Kananga, Kindu, Kinshasa, Lubumbashi, Kalemie Mbandaka and Mbuji-Mayi. Compagnie Africaine d'Aviation has an extensive network between Basankusu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kananga, Kikwit, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Lisala, Lodja, Lubumbashi, Mbandaka, Mbuji-Mayi and Tshikapa.

By Train

Train travel is possible, but really not recommended, as services are poor and slow. The main domestic railway runs from Lubumbashi to Ilebo, with a branch to Kalemie and Kindu via Kabalo and Kisangani. Another one runs from the capital Kinshasa to the port of Matadi.

By Car

Getting around by a rental car or your own car is possible, but roads are in an extremely poor conditions and many parts are muddy. Sometimes, bridges which use to cross rivers or other geographical features, are damaged. Only in an immediately around bigger cities the roads are in an acceptable condition. You can rent a car on a few airports and you need an international driving permit. Traffic drives on the right.

By Truck

As smaller vehicles are unable to negotiate what remains of the roads, a lot of travel in the Congo is done by truck. If you go to a truck park, normally near the market, you should be able to find a truck driver to take you where ever you want, conflict zones aside. You travel on top of the load with a large number of others. If you pick a truck carrying bags of something soft like peanuts it can be quite comfortable. Beer trucks are not. If the trip takes days then comfort can be vital, especially if the truck goes all night. It helps to sit along the back, as the driver will not stop just because you want the toilet. The cost has to be negotiated so ask hotel staff first and try not to pay more than twice the local rate. Sometimes the inside seat is available. Food can be bought from the driver, though they normally stop at roadside stalls every 5/6 hours. Departure time are normally at the start or end of the day, though time is very flexible. It helps to make arrangements the day before. It is best to travel with a few others. Women should never ever travel alone. Some roads have major bandit problems so check carefully before going.

At army checkpoints locals are often hassled for bribes. Foreigners are normally left alone, but prepare some kind of bribe just in case. By the middle of the afternoon the soldiers can be drunk so be very careful and very polite. Never lose your temper.

By Bus

Buses travel between most major cities and towns, but are crowded, slow, uncomfortable and unreliable.

By Boat

Theoretically, there should be regular passenger services along the Congo River between Kinshasa, Kisangani and Ilebo. Services are not scheduled though and are very unreliable mainly due to shortages of petrol. Still, it might be one of the most memorable and even safest modes of transport, albeit the slowest as well. It is a great way to meet people, that's for sure.



Red Tape

Citizens of Burundi, Rwanda and Zimbabwe can enter the DRC visa free for up to 90 days. Citizens of Kenya, Mauritius and Tanzania can obtain a visa on arrival, valid for only 7 days. Everyone else travelling to the Congo for any purpose will need a visa. You can find the visa requirements on the Interior Ministry website. However, getting a visa—like most government services—isn't straightforward and can be a messy process, with different officials telling you different stories in different places around the country and at different embassies/consulates worldwide. And then there's immigration officials trying to get more money out of you for their own gain. What follows are the requirements that seem to be in place as of June 2012, although you may hear stories telling you otherwise.

If arriving by air (Kinshasa or Lubumbashi), you will need to have a visa before arrival and proof of yellow fever vaccination. Visas on arrival are not issued, or at least not commonly enough that you risk being placed on the next plane back. You should also have one passport-sized photograph, and evidence that you have sufficient funds to cover your stay, which includes evidence of a hotel reservation. The requirements and costs for visas vary from embassy to embassy, with some requiring a letter of invitation, others an onward air ticket, proof of funds for travel, and others nothing beyond an application. If planning to get a visa in a third country (e.g.: an American arriving by air from Ethiopia), wait for a visa before booking the airfare, since DRC embassies in some African countries only issue visas to citizens or residents of that country.

As for arriving overland, you're best off if your home country doesn't have a DRC embassy (such as Australia & New Zealand) in which case you can apply for a visa in neighbouring countries without too much trouble. If your passport is from a country with a DRC embassy then embassies in neighbouring countries (Uganda, Rwanda, etc.) may tell you that you can only apply for a visa in your country of citizenship or residence.

If you're entering the DRC from Uganda or Rwanda (especially at Goma), the visa process seems different for everyone. You can apply for a visa at the embassies in Kigali, Kampala, or Nairobi with a 1-7 day turnaround for US$50–80. As recently as 2011, you could apply for a transit visa at the border relatively hassle-free for US$35 (and maybe a small "tip" for the official which goes away with persistence) with a yellow fever certificate and a passport-sized photo, although this no longer appears to be possible. Travellers trying to get a visa at the border have been asked for as much as US$500! It seems the actual cost depends on who's working at the post that day, your nationality, and how persistent you are, with US$100 seeming to be the real price, but many being told US$200–300 either as just the "fee" or a fee plus "tip" for the officials (which is what happens in the former situation anyways). These visas are either "transit" visas good for 7 days or visas only valid to visit the Goma and border areas. Given the bad security situation in North/South Kivu, you probably shouldn't venture outside Goma or the national parks anyways. If you visit Virunga National Park, you can get a visa for USD50 and apply on-line or through your tour operator. If you can't get a visa at Goma for a reasonable price, you can travel south and try to cross at Bukavu and take a boat across the lake to Goma (do not go by road: too dangerous). Also, be sure if you cross the border to the DRC immigration post, you have officially left Uganda or Rwanda, so be sure you have a multiple-entry visa before leaving!

When exiting the country by air, there is a US$50 departure tax that you'll need to pay in cash at the airport. If you travel by boat from Kinshasa to Brazzaville, you officially need a special exit permit and a visa for Congo-Brazzaville. To save time/money/stress, you should probably contact your embassy in Kinshasa before taking the ferry.




See also Money Matters

The franc (CDF) is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is subdivided into 100 centimes.

There are no coins anymore; inflation has taken its toll.

Banknotes are issued in denominations of CDF50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000 and 20,000. The only Congolese bank notes currently in circulation in most places are the 50, 100, 200 and 500 franc notes. They are almost worthless, as the highest valued banknote (the 500 franc note) is worth only about USD0.55.

US dollars in denominations above $2 are much preferred to francs. In contrast, US coins and $1 and $2 US dollar bills are considered worthless. If you pay in dollars, you will get change in francs. Though francs may sometimes come in bills so old they feel like fabric, US dollar bills must be crisp (less than 3 folds) and be printed in or after 2003, or they will not be accepted.




French is the lingua franca of the country and nearly everyone has a basic to moderate understanding of French. In Kinshasa and much of the Western DRC, nearly everyone is fluent in French with Kinshasa being the second or third largest French-speaking city in the world (depending on your source), although locals may be heard speaking Lingala amongst themselves. Much of the eastern and southern half speaks Swahili or related languages. The rest of the country speaks either Kikongo, Lingala, Tshiluba, or a smaller tribal language. If you are travelling to the southwestern border near Angola you can find some Portuguese speakers.




Congo has one national dish: moambe. It's made of eight ingredients (moambe is the Lingala word for eight): palm nuts, chicken, fish, peanuts, rice, cassava leaves, bananas and hot pepper sauce.




There are more and more hotels in Kinshasa, with smaller hotels available in Gombe and Ngaliema area. In many small towns the local church or monastery may have beds available. You may also encounter the occasional decaying colonial hotel. Not all are safe.




Do not drink the local water. Bottled water seems to be cheap enough, but sometimes hard to find for a good price. The usual soft drinks (called sucré in Congo) such as Coke, Pepsi, Um Bongo and Mirinda are available in most places and are safe to drink. Local drinks like Vitalo are amazing. Traditional drinks like ginger are also common.

The local beer is based on rice, and tastes quite good. It comes in 75 cl bottles. Primus, Skol, Castel are the most common brands. Tembo, Doppel are the local dark beers.

In rural areas, you may try the local palm wine, an alcoholic beverage from the sap of the palm tree. It is tapped right from the tree, and begins fermenting immediately after collection. After two hours, fermentation yields an aromatic wine of up to 4% alcohol content, mildly intoxicating and sweet. The wine may be allowed to ferment longer, up to a day, to yield a stronger, more sour and acidic taste, which some people prefer.

Beware of the local gin. Sometimes unscrupulous vendors mix in methanol which is toxic and can cause blindness. Some people believe that the methanol is a by product of regular fermentation. This is not the case as regular fermentation can not yield methanol in toxic amounts.




See also Travel Health

The Democratic Republic of Congo has very poor health care infrastructure/facilities. Outside the capital Kinshasa, there are very few hospitals or clinics for sick or injured travellers to visit. If you are travelling on one of the country's isolated, muddy roads or along the Congo River, you could be over a week away from the nearest clinic or hospital!

Proof that you had a yellow fever vaccination is required upon entering the Democratic Republic of Congo. You have to have a cholera stamp (prove of the fact that you don't have that disease) when entering overland.

It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Democratic Republic of Congo. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also both hepatitis A as well as typhoid would be recommended.

If you are staying longer than 3 months or have a particular risk (travelling by bike, handling of animals, visits to caves) you might consider a rabies vaccination. Vaccination against Tuberculosis as well as hepatitis B are also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months. When staying longer than 6 months, vaccination against meningitis might be recommended, depending on your contact with other people.

Like most African countries south of the Sahara, Malaria is prevalent in the country. Don't underestimate this tropical disease and take precautions. Buy repellent (preferably with 50% DEET), and sleep under a net. Dengue is present in the country as well, mainly in and around urban areas and other places where there are many people.

Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.




See also Travel Safety

DR Congo remains one of the most underdeveloped countries in Africa and a significant portion of the DRC is not safe for any travel or sightseeing. In addition to active conflicts, the country has very limited health care and tourism facilities, even by African standards.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has seen more than its fair share of violence. A number of ongoing wars, conflicts, and episodes of fighting have occurred since independence, with sporadic, regional violence continuing today. As a result, significant sections of the country should be considered off-limits to travellers.

In the northeastern part of the country, the LRA (of child-soldier & 'Kony' fame) continues to roam the jungles near the border with the CAR/South Sudan/Uganda. Although a few areas very close to the Ugandan border are relatively safe to visit, travel anywhere north and east of Kisangani & Bumba is dangerous.

The regions of North & South Kivu have been in a state of continuous conflict since the early 1990s. The days of the notoriously bloody violence that occurred during the First and Second Congo Wars (during which 5 million died in fighting or through resulting disease/famine) officially ended with a peace treaty in 2003. However, low-level violence spurred by several warlords/factions has occurred ever since and this region is home to the largest UN peacekeeping mission in the world (as of 2012). Hundreds of thousands live in refugee camps near Goma. In April 2012, a new faction—"M23"—arose, led by Gen.Ntaganda (wanted by the ICC for war crimes) and has captured/attacked many towns in the region, where they are accused of killing civilians and raping women. This has been the most serious crisis since the end of war in 2003. In mid-July, they threatened to invade Goma to protect the Tutsi population there from "harassment"; the UN peacekeeping mission quickly responded that they would reposition 19,000 peacekeepers to protect Goma & nearby refugee camps. How serious the threat of fighting in Goma remains to be seen BBC report) The only safe areas in North/South Kivu are the cities of Goma & Bukavu and Virunga National Park, all on the Rwandan border.

The dangers to visitors are far beyond conflicts, though. After Somalia, the DRC is most likely the least developed country in Africa. The road network is pathetic. The country's roads are in very poor condition and travel over long distances by road can take weeks, especially during the wetter months. Even some of the country's "main" roads are little more than mud tracks that can only be travelled by 4x4 or 6x6 trucks. The DRC has just 2250 km of sealed roads, of which the UN considers only 1226 km to be in "good" condition. To put this in perspective, the road distance east-west across the country in any direction is over 2500 km (e.g. Matadi to Lubumbashi is 2700 by road)! Another comparison is that there are just 35 km of paved highway per 1 000 000 people—Zambia (one of the poorest African countries) and Botswana (one of the richest) have 580 km and 3427 km per 1 000 000 people, respectively. Public transportation is almost non-existent and the primary means of travel is catching a ride on an old, overloaded truck where several paying passengers are allowed to sit atop the cargo. This is very dangerous.

Congolese planes crash with depressing regularity, with eight recorded crashes in 2007 alone. Despite this, the risks of air travel remain on par with travel by road, barge, or rail. The notorious Hewa Bora airlines has gone out of business and the creation of a handful of new airlines between 2010 and 2012 should lead to improvement in the safety of air travel in the DRC. Avoid at all costs, old Soviet aircraft that are often chartered to carry cargo and perhaps a passenger or two and stick with the commercial airlines operating newer aircraft (listed above under "Get around/By plane"). If you are still fearful of getting on a Congolese plane and aren't as concerned about cost, you can try flying with a foreign carrier such as Kenyan Airways (which flies to Kinshasa, Lubumbashi, & Kisangani) or Ethiopian (Kinshasha, Lubumbashi). Just be sure to check the visa requirements to transit.

Travel by river boat or barge remains somewhat risky, although safer than by road. Overcrowded barges have sunk and aging boats have capsized travelling along the Congo River, resulting in hundreds of deaths. Before catching a ride, take a look at the vessel you will be boarding and if you don't feel safe, it is better to wait for the next boat, even if you must wait several days. Most of the country's rail network is in disrepair, with little maintenance carried out since the Belgians left. A few derailings have occurred, resulting in large numbers of casualties. Trains in the DRC are also overloaded, don't even think about joining the locals riding on the roof!

Crime is a serious problem across much of the country. During the waning years of Mobutu's rule, Kinshasa had one of the highest murder rates in the world and travel to Kinshasa was comparable to Baghdad during the Iraq War! While violence has subsided considerably, Kinshasa remains a high crime city (comparable to Lagos or Abidjan). Keep anything that can be perceived as valuable by a Congolese out of sight when in vehicles, as smash-and-grab crime at intersections occurs. Markets in larger cities are rife with pickpockets. Keep in mind that the DRC remains among the 3-4 poorest countries in Africa and compared to the locals, every white person is perceived as rich. Be vigilant of thieves in public places. If travelling in remote areas, smaller villages are usually safer than larger ones. Hotel rooms outside the biggest cities often don't have adequate safety (like flimsy locks on doors or ground-level windows that don't lock or have curtains).

Taking photos in public can be cause for suspicion. By some accounts, an official permit is needed to take photos in the DRC. In reality they will likely be difficult or impossible to find or obtain. Do not photograph anything that can be perceived as a national security threat, such as bridges, roadblocks, border crossings, and government buildings.

Additionally, the DRC has very poor health care infrastructure/facilities. Outside the capital Kinshasa, there are very few hospitals or clinics for sick or injured travellers to visit. If you are travelling on one of the country's isolated, muddy roads or along the Congo River, you could be over a week away from the nearest clinic or hospital! A number of tropical diseases are present—see "Stay healthy" below.

Those visiting for business, research, or international aid purposes should consult with their organization and seek expert guidance before planning a trip. Travellers visiting on their own should consult the advice of your embassy for any travel to the DRC.



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See also International Telephone Calls

The country calling code to the Democratic Republic of the Congo is: 243.

To make an international call from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the code is: 00


Quick Facts

Democratic Republic of Congo flag

Map of Democratic Republic of Congo


Christianity (Catholic, Protestant), Kimbanguism, Islam
French (Official language), Lingala, Kikongo, Swahili, Tshiluba (National languages)
Calling Code
Local name
Republique Democratique du Congo


as well as hasbeen (2%), Peter (1%), dr.pepper (1%), mk.magloire (1%), nigelpeaco (<1%)

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