Kochi (India)

Travel Guide Asia India Kerala Kochi

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Introduction

Chinese Fishing Nets

Chinese Fishing Nets

© Degolasse

Kochi is the new name of Cochin, a jewel in the crown of Kerala with its European heritage and true cosmopolitan temperament. A boat ride across the breathtaking blue lagoons and backwaters offers a glimpse of Kochi's rural life and its true beauty. The port city of Cochin (Kochi), rightly known as the Queen of Arabian Sea reflects the essence of Kerala perfectly. With a rich past and a bustling present, it has been the business hub of the region since the very early days. Cochin consists of mainland Ernakulam, the islands of Willington, Bolgatty and Gundu in the harbour, Fort Cochin and Mattancherry on the southern peninsula, and Vypeen Island north of Fort Cochin, all were linked by ferry but now some islands have bridges. The influence of Chinese, Jews, Arabs and Europeans is evident in Cochin and its people. The oldest church in India, 500-year-old Portugese houses, old tiled houses built in the Chinese pagoda style, the famous Chinese fishing nets, a Jewish community whose roots go back to the Diaspora, synagogues and mosques all tell the fascinating story of this harbour. Cochin is an attractive city with serene creak & lagoons overhung with feathery coconut palms and picturesque islands.

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Sights and Activities

St. Francis Church

The St. Francis Church was originally dedicated to Santo Antonio, the patron Saint of Portugal. It was built by the Portuguese in 1510. It is the first church to have been built in the new European influenced tradition. Vasco da Gama who arrived in India at Cochin in 1502 and died here in 1524. He was originally buried in this church cemetery and his gravestone can still be seen here, although his remains were later taken to Lisbon. The church was renamed as St.Francis in 1663, and the Dutch converted it to a protestant Church and substantially modified it. The Church was under the control of Dutch until 1795. In 1804 it became a Anglican Church. The congregation joined the church of South India in 1949.

Chinese Fishing Nets

The Chinese fishing nets found here are the only ones of its kind in India. It is believed that traders from the court of the Chinese ruler Kublai Khan introduced these nets here. These nets are set up on Teak wood and bamboo poles.

Jewish Synagogue

The Jewish Synagogue is an imposing structure which was built in 1568, when the Jews settled in Mattancherry, after their expulsion from Rahabi, who built a clock tower and paved the floor synagogue with hand painted willow pattern tiles brought from China. Its most important relics are the impressive copper plates recording king Bhaskara Ravi Varma's 4th century decree that guaranteed the Jewish settlers domain over Cranganore (Kodungalore). The Synagogue itself is elaborately decorated with crystal chandeliers and carved wood with blue and white ceramic tiles

Mattancherry Palace

The Mattancherry Palace was built by the Portuguese in the middle of the 16th century. This structure was taken over in 1663 by the Dutch, who added some improvements before presenting it to the Rajas of Cochin. The rajas also made more improvements. This palace is notable for some of the best mythological murals in India, particularly in the bed chambers. In that room one can see the entire story of Ramayana on the walls. The palace also contains rare examples of traditional Kerala flooring, which looks like polished black marble but is actually a mixture of burned coconut shells, charcoal, lime, plant juices and egg whites.

Dance Performance of "Mohiniattam"and dinner

At the Taj Malabar Hotel - Mohiniattam is derived from the words "mohini" And "attam". Mohini means a beautiful woman and attam means dance. So this dance is an exquisite feminine style with undulating flow of body movements. This dance form is done by women and is a gentle dance form with great fluidity.The theme of the dance is generally "sringara" or love. Delicate themes of love are performed with suggestive abhinaya, subtle stures, rhythmic footwork and lilting music. After the performance relish a traditional meal “Saapadu” which includes various delicacies having flavour and aroma, spice and subtlety a wholesomeness that is exquisite on plate and light on stomach, define Kerala’s culinary tradition.

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Events and Festivals

  • Holi is quite popular in the Indian sub-continent and is traditionally celebrated on the day after the full moon in the month of Phalguna (early March), according to Hindu callendar. Holi is a thanksgiving festival, where people offer prayer to God for good harvest and fertility of the land. However it has a legend attached to it according to which an arrogant king resents his son Prahlada from worshipping Lord Vishnu. He attempts to kill his son but fails each time, finally he asks his sister Holika, who is said to be immune to burning, sits with Prahlada in fire. However Prahlada emerges alive and Holika is burnt to death. Holi commemorates this event from the Hindu mythology, and huge bonfires are burnt on the eve of Holi as its symbolic representation. This festival is also associated with the immortal love story of Krishna and Radha, and hence celebrations are spread over a period of 2 weeks in Vrindavan and Mathura - the two cities associated with Krishna. Holi is a festival of freedom from social norms and caste inhibitions are shed for a day as people indulge in fun and merry-making. Colors and 'gulal' are showered on the people dressed up for the occasion and the whole community seems to merge into one big family under the guise of colors, without any distinction whatsoever. Children with face smeared with colors run around with 'pichkaris' (big syringes to splash colored water) and play amongst themselves. People exchange good wishes, sweets and gifts. Holi is also marked by vibrant processions which are accompanied by folk songs, dances and drum beating. Parties are also organized where snacks and the traditional milk-based drink “Thandai” is served which is often intoxicated with “Bhang”. Of late, lots of foreigners have started taking interest in this festival and they even enjoy the colors and the intoxicating drink. It is advised to cover your hair with a cap and eyes with sunglasses to avoid the colors splashing the eyes and damaging the hair.
  • Republic Day - Republic Day is a national holiday in India every January 26 to commemorate the adoption of the Constitution in 1950 and the declaration of independence in 1930. The capital of New Delhi is the focus of the celebrations, including a flag raising ceremony, wreath laying, 21-gun salute, Presidential speech, and presentation of awards for selflessness and bravery. A massive military parade includes elephants ridden by children who have received national accolades.
  • Gandhi Jayanti - Gandhi Jayanti is a national public holiday commemorating the birth of the peaceful activist, Mohandas Gandhi on October 2, 1869. The celebration coincides with the United Nations’ International Day of Non-Violence. In India, Gandhi is remembered through statues, flower and candle offerings, prayers and singing the devotional hymn Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. The Indian government issues special mint rupees and postage stamps bearing his picture.
  • Ganesh Chaturthi - The ten-day September festival of Ganesh Chaturthi celebrates the birthday of the elephant-headed Hindu god Ganesh with culture, concerts and feasts. The biggest events take place in Maharashtra where people worship an idol for ten days before taking it to the river or sea and drowning it.
  • Navarathri, Dussehra Festival - This theatrical Hindu festival takes place over ten days in October. The first nine feature dancing to honor the Mother Goddess. The tenth day commemorates Lord Rama’s defeat of demon king Ravana and goddess Durga’s triumph over Mahishasura, the buffalo demon. The event is called Durga Puja in east India where the faithful create huge statues to immerse in the Ganges River.
  • Diwali - Diwali is the five-day festival of lights held in India in late October or early November each year. The widely celebrated Hindu event marks Lord Rama’s victory over the demon Ravan. Homes and streets are decorated with lights, candles and small clay lamps, and new clothes are worn and sweets are exchanged.

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Weather

Kochi features a tropical monsoon climate. Kochi's proximity to the equator along with its coastal location results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity. Annual temperatures range between 23 and 31 °C with the record high being 36.5 °C, and record low 16.3 °C. From June to September, the southwest monsoon brings in heavy rains as Kochi lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kochi receives lighter (yet significant) rain from the northeast monsoon, as it lies on the leeward side. Average annual rainfall is 2,978.0 mm, with an annual average of 125 rainy days.

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Getting There

By Plane

Cochin International Airport (IATA: COK, ICAO: VOCI), which is about 25 kilometres (15 mi) north of the city, handles both domestic and international flights. It is the largest airport of Kerala, and one of the busiest in India. Flights are available to a wide range of destinations including to Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Goa, Sharjah, Jeddah, Riyadh, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Kuwait, Bahrain, Muscat, Doha, Kuala Lumpur, Dammam and Singapore.

By Train

There are two main railway stations: Ernakulam Junction and the Ernakulam Town (locally known as the 'South' and 'North' railway stations respectively). Both of these railway stations are in Ernakulam with the historical part of the city, Fort Kochi, accessible by ferry, bus and taxi.

By Car

Kochi is well connected by road from all parts of the state as well as other major cities. Three major national highways connect Kochi with other parts of country.
NH 17, the 7th longest highway in India, connects Kochi with Mumbai via most of major towns in Malabar, Mangalore, Goa.
The heavily congested NH 47 connects Thiruvananthapuram with Kochi and continues on to Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu via Palakkad and Thrissur.
NH 49 connects Kochi with Ramaeswaram in Tamil Nadu which passes through Madurai via Munnar.
Kochi is well connected to other parts of state through various state highways.

By Bus

Kochi is accessible from all southern parts of the country as well as other parts of the state, through the extensive state run Kerala Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) bus services and services of neighbouring state transport corporations.

KSRTC operates 3 types of services; Super Fast (No Frills), Express (Standard non-A/C) and Garuda Hi-tech(Volvo premium). Karnataka State buses run daily services from Bangalore, Mysore and Mangalore with three types of services; the Rajahamsa (executive service, with reclining seats), the Airavat (A/c service, with reclining semi-sleeper seats), and Ambaari (A/c sleeper service). Tamil Nadu SETC operates superfast and executive services to many destinations like Madurai,Ooty, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli,Salem, and Trichy. Most inter-state buses start and end their journey from KSRTC Central & Inter-state Bus Station (CBS), in the heart of the city at Rajaji Rd. To reduce congestion at CBS, some local KSRTC buses start/end their services at KSRTC Boat Jetty Stand in Park Avenue.

Apart from govt services, numerous private bus companies operate scheduled services to almost all major cities in South India as well as Mumbai, Goa etc. All these buses are executive or premium services offering air-conditioned travel with good facilities and higher prices to match.

By Boat

Kochi can be reached by sea in yachts or the occasional cruise ship from Goa, Mumbai, Lakshadweep, Colombo and Male. Almost all leading international cruises on global voyages operate to Kochi from the US and Europe at Wellingdon Island Cruise Berth. Yachts can be anchored at Kochi International Marina or Yacht Club Marina. There is a direct ferry service between Kochi and Lakshadweep.

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Getting Around

By Car

Unless you are into adventure seeking, self-drive in Kochi is not recommended as driving discipline is almost non-existent. There are long stretches of roads passing through heavily populated areas that have no median breaks, and most of them are congested bi-lane roads. A few major roads like MG Rd, NH Bypass Rd and Marine Drive are two lane-dual carriageways with good medians. Speed limit inside city zone is 30 km/hr. Driving is on the left, and all foreign drivers need a valid International Driving Licence attested by the Road Transport Office (RTO). Driving outside the city limits is a fine experience with good scenery and far less traffic. Most of the bridges and few roads carry toll charges collected at manned toll plazas or checkpoints. Almost all tolls are uniformly charged separately for one/two way; 2 wheelers- ₹ 3/5, 4 wheelers- ₹ 5/10 and bus/minivans - ₹ 15/25. Almost all the toll pass is valid for unlimited travel for a period of 24 hours, though a few bridges allow one time validity.

Car rental is not popular among foreign visitors. Many car rental companies refuse to provide self-drive cars to Westerners. Normally a bank guarantee letter or security cheque/traveller's cheque to the value of the car or a passport are taken as security for renting the car. No security deposit is needed if the car is chauffeur-driven.

Most hotels with three stars or more provide private cars for their guests at rates slightly higher than elsewhere.

Taxis are convenient, comfortable, and safer than auto rickshaws. If you are alone or going to an unknown destination, this is a good option, though the rates are double that of an auto. Unlike many countries, taxis are not usually marked with signs on the top and do not have meters inside the taxi.

There are two type of taxi services, regular and call taxis. Regular taxis are normally available at designated taxi stands at places such as railway stations, the airport, boat jetties, major bus stations and in front of important hotels.

There is no need to negotiate prices, as most of them follow fixed rates. Regular taxis have tariff cards displayed on the dashboard. Call taxis have charges fixed by their respective companies (although they are normally uniform). The standard tariffs are ₹ 50 for first 3 km, and ₹ 8 per km thereafter. Add 10% for a taxi with A/C, and 15-20% at night.

Many taxi companies offer full or half day services. Most of them are fixed on ad-hoc basis, based on the negotiating skills of the passenger. Typical rates are ₹ 1,100/1,500 for standard/AC taxis for a full day and ₹ 500/750 for a half day. These rates are not available after 7PM.

By Public Transport

Kochi has an excellent public bus network with four types of buses operated by Govt-run KSRTC and private operators. The most common option is privately operated Blue bus (also referred to as 'Line buses') which provides a cheap no-frills journey. Using these is not that difficult as many destination boards have English lettering in small and most bus conductors can provide assistance in basic English, though route numbers exists only on papers. Peak hours on weekdays can lead to overcrowded buses, particularly Route 1. Govt-operated KSRTC offers no-frills city services Thiru-Kochi which also ply in same Red-Bus routes. Thirukochi buses can be distinguished from other buses with its blue-white livery. Most of Red and Thirukochi buses run primarily on the Big 4 Routes. These cover virtually all parts of the city. There are other feeder routes, which interconnect places between these Big 4 Routes. Vytilla-Vytilla circular services cover most of the city core. The minimum fare for all city buses is ₹ 8. The average waiting time is 1-10 mins.

Apart from regular city services, KSRTC under JnNURM's funding operates 2 class of bus services which can be distinguished from other city buses with its distinctive livery and JnNURM logo.

For premium travel, low-floor air-conditioned Volvo services called Orange buses connect many important destinations. Rates are ₹ 10 for first 5 km, ₹ 2 for every km thereafter. Average waiting time is 10-30 mins. These buses can stop anywhere on the route as per passenger's request.

For standard travel, use Green bus, a non air-conditioned low-floor service which links all suburbs to city centre. This is ideal for budget tourists as it connects to many faraway tourist attractions while maintaining excellent standards. The rates are ₹ 5 for first 5 km, 75p for every km thereafter. Only 3 lines are served, which will be increased soon. Like Orange Bus, these buses stop anywhere on the route as per passenger's request. Timetable for Orange/Green are available at the KSRTC site.

All city bus services start at 6AM and end by 10PM. A certain number of seats are allocated for women in the forward portion of each bus, and men must vacate them when a woman wishes to sit there.

Different bus shelters/stops are used for bus plying different routes. Route notices displayed at each stop will be in Malayalam. Route notices for Orange bus lines are now in English also. Asking locals or bus conductors would be very helpful.

Kochi metro has been flagged off on 17 June 2017 and is operational from Aluva to Palarivattom. The second phase from Palarivattom up to Maharaja's College has been flagged off on August 2017.

The unveiling of the metro was considered a landmark event in India in terms of completion time, control systems used and initiatives such as employing transgenders, vertical gardening, respecting migrant laborers and use of solar power. Each station in the metro is designed on a specific theme around Kerala culture and geography. The metro can be used with regular tickets, and has also adopted a single card, single timetable and a singular command and control. Along with this debit card a mobile app should be launched to replace tokens and tickets.

Some suburban areas are well-connected via regular passenger and long distance express trains. The most used route is Ernakulam-Aluva. Almost all regular passenger, express and intercity trains have a stop at Aluva. Regular passenger trains have 1-minute stops at Edapally, Kumbalangi, Angamally and Aroor stations. Many long-distance trains operate between Thripunithura and Kochi North station.

It is a good idea to take rail during busy peak-hours when buses are overcrowded. Equally good idea to take rail to Aluva from city centre which is the nearest point to Airport (12 km) from where a taxi or Orange Route A bus can taken to avoid city traffic congestion.

Kochi has an excellent system of cheap (₹ 2.5 Park Jetty to Fort Kochi) inter-island ferries. The Ro-Ro (roll on-roll off) ferry service called Junkar between Fort Kochi and Vypeen is very popular. There are regular boat services operated by KSINC and other private operators, every 20-30 minutes, from Ernakulam to Mattancherry, Fort Kochi, Vypeen and Willingdon Island which are cheaper and in many cases faster, than buses. All services operates from 4:40AM-6:30PM with an exception to Fort Kochi-Vypin Junkar service which operates from 4AM-10:30PM. The major boat jetties are Ernakulam Main Jetty (in Marine Drive near High Court), Park Jetty (in Park Avenue next to KSRTC Bus station), Customs Embarkation Jetty in Willingdon Island, Fort Kochi Jetties. Do take a look at the map provided, as some ferries do not stop at all stops along the way. A few tourist oriented private ferries service non-scheduled routes during tourist seasons connecting mainly to Kumbalangi Tourist village from Ernakulam Main Jetty as well as from Aroor.

As of April 2018, the Vypeen-Fort Kochi vehicle ferry has been out of action for 2 months, and vehicles must make the round trip through Ernakulam.

By Foot

Kochi is traditionally not a pedestrian-friendly city considering the humid tropical climate, poor pedestrian walkways and reckless traffic. So it might be good to avoid too much walking in the busy city-centre area. Fort Kochi is one of the better places to walk, with elaborate colonial-style stone pavements.

Most of the famous destinations fall within the range of 10 km so it is good idea to cover them by foot.

By Bike

Fort Kochi is a perfect place for cycling with dedicated tracks and walkways. There are several tourist firms that offers cycles and bikes on hourly basis. A popular option is Vasco Information Centre in Fort Kochi ☎ +91 484 2216215), which rents cycles for ₹ 7 on hourly basis. However, there are no separate cycling tracks on mainland city roads. Motorbikes are becoming a popular option for tourists to take a ride in other parts of city. Take extra care while biking in Kochi roads as road users can be reckless.

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Eat

For the past 600 years, Kochi has catered to many visitors from around the world including Arabs, Chinese, Portuguese, French, English, Dutch, Russians and Japanese. This has made the city a melting pot of various cultures, and this diversity is evident in the cuisine.

Being a coastal city, plenty of fresh seafood is the local speciality. With the backwaters, freshwater fish is also popular here. Prawns, squids and shrimps are easily available and cooked in many styles. The most famous of Kochi's specialty dishes is Meen Molagitta Curry (smoked freshwater fish with chilly and coconut milk). The English popularized smoked fish with steamed bread and mashed potatoes. One of Kochi's traditional vegetarian specialties is Kurukku Kalan (a thick yogurt curry with toasted banana and hot rice). Packed Kurukku Kalan as well as Palada (a sweet dessert with rice flakes and milk) are sold in many supermarkets and food stalls, especially during festive times.

At Fort Kochi beach you can buy fresh fish and have it cooked at the nearby food stalls. Fishmongers will sell you a kilo of tiger prawns for around ₹ 300 and a kilo of squid for around ₹ 250. Food stalls will charge you ₹ 40-50 per person to cook your fish (grilled, curry, whatever) and provide you with a serve of chips and salad. Conditions are reasonably hygienic.

Fried fish, Fish molly (a coconut milk sauce based curry almost like stew), Alleppey fish curry (traditional curry with tomato sauce and fish tamarind) and Fish Peera (chunks of fish toasted with grated coconuts with fish tamarind sauce), Varatharacha Kozhi curry (semi-fried chicken toasted with coconut and chilly) are the favorites, usually taken with rice or steamed tapioca (cassava). Also worth trying are the traditional rice based breakfast snacks, puttu and kadala, appam and stew.

Kochi has a variety of cheap restaurants all over the city. A full meal should cost less than ₹ 50.

Thattukadas are streetside food hawkers, where you can get hot, fresh-cooked delicious food, costing a maximum of ₹ 50 for a good filling meal. Most offer set meal combinations served from portable cooking trolleys with a few benches or chairs nearby. The most famous delicacies are stuffed or plain thattu dosas (thick dosas almost like pizza bread), hot Kerala porottas (flat bread of milled wheat), Kerala roast beef with chappatti and kanji (rice porridge). The main concern is the lack of hygiene and constant reuse of oil for frying.

Kochi has some home-grown fast food chains: KR Hot Chicken, 61 Pai Dosas, Luciya's Food Court, Potpurri, The Oven, Krispy Chicken, Arabian Treat, Papa Milano's and Breadworld Broasted Chicken have a presence in most parts of town. Foreign franchises such as KFC, Chicking, Noodle Kings, McDonalds, Burger KIng, US Pizzas, Marrybrown, Pizza Hut and Domino's also have a presence here.

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Drink

Keralites are well known for their drinking habit. Finding bars or pubs is not difficult in Kochi. For those who do not drink alcohol there are lots of excellent local options.

Finding a bar or pub is not difficult. Most of the budget oriented bars are near the railway stations and in Kaloor and Edappally. Mid-market and high end bars are all over. There are many beer and wine bars catering for foreign tourists at Fort Kochi. As elsewhere in Kerala, all bars and pubs have to close every first and second day of the month as well as on all state holidays. These are known as dry days. All bars have to close by midnight.

You can buy almost any brand of liquor from state-run Beverages Co stores, which have an extensive network of in Kochi, selling at competitive rates. Expect long queues, especially on the eve of dry days.

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Keep Connected

Internet

There's good coverage over most of India for Internet cafes. However, following the recent terror attacks in Mumbai and some other cities, all internet cafes have been instructed by the authorities to maintain a register and note down the identification details of all persons using internet. Sify iWay is a reliable and cheap cafe with over 1,600 cafes over India. iWay also allows you to open a pre-paid account that you can use all over India. Whenever you have Internet access probably the best and cheapest way to call family and friends at home is software that allows users to make voice calls over the Internet such as Skype.

Wifi hotspots in India are, for most part, limited. The major airports and stations do offer paid wifi at around RS.60-100 an hour. Delhi, Bangalore, Pune and Mumbai are the only cities with decent wifi coverage. At Mumbai airport, you get to use WiFi internet free, for an hour or so.

Phone

See also International Telephone Calls

The country code for India is 91. To dial outside the country from India, prefix the country code with 00.

The general emergency number is 100 (emergency response police & fire), while for ambulance you should dial 102 or 112, though some regions have 108 for this emergency. 108 is used in in the Indian states of Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha,Assam, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. 108 can be called for medical, crime, fire, or any other emergency from any phone.

Local phone numbers can be anywhere from 5-8 digits long. But when the area code is included, all landline phone numbers in India are 10 digits long. Cellphone numbers usually start with '9', '8', or '7'. Toll-free numbers start with 1-800.

If staying longterm it is probably wise to think about investing in a mobile phone. You'll possibly need to provide a photocopy of your passport and itinerary, so come prepared. Make sure you arrange it upon arrival in a big city, as it can sometimes be difficult to organise with language barriers and such in more regional areas. You can buy a cheap nokia for about RS.1,200 with a pre-paid plan. Airtel is a good carrier to think about as they have great coverage, and constant offers for cheaper calling. To recharge, most shop vendors with phone carrier signs can do it via their own phone. You give them your mobile number, they put it in their phone and you'll both get messages as to whether or not the recharge has been successful. Also, if possible, buy the phone in the state where you do the most travelling as the charges are higher in the states where you did not originally buy the phone.

Over the entire country there are plenty of public phones, even in the middle of the countryside. Although most of the time these phones are not very well maintained and have horrible connections. Therefore remember when using one of these public phones one must be extremely patient.
For international calls from payphones, you'll have to visit a reputable internet cafe with a phone-booth. Mobile phones are usually a better and cheaper option.

Post

India Post is the national postal service of India, and on their website you find details about prices to send postcards, letters and parcels, both domestically and internationally. For most postcards to send internationally, it is better to visit the post office before writing on the card as you may need quite a few stamps. Parcels must be taken to a tailor, he will then sew it up in white linen. Make sure he seals it with red wax, otherwise the post office may refuse to send it or try to get you to pay them to do it. Sewing up a parcel should only cost RS.50 to 200. In general, post offices are open from 10:00am to 1:00pm and 1:30pm to 4:30pm in most bigger towns and cities, though there are regional variations and some might keep longer hours or be open during (part of) the weekend as well. Ask around.

If you want to send bigger packages/parcels, it might be better, faster and sometimes even cheaper, to contact a private company like DHL, TNT or UPS.

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This is version 26. Last edited at 18:09 on Nov 14, 18 by Utrecht. 3 articles link to this page.

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