Travel Guide Asia Myanmar



The Expanse of Bagan, Mid-day

The Expanse of Bagan, Mid-day

© jonshapiro

Long isolated from the rest of the world, Myanmar is fast becoming a popular destination for travellers. Buddhism is the majority religion in the country & permeates all aspects of life in the country. Pagodas, glistening in the sun are to be seen everywhere. Nuns & Monks collecting their alms are a frequent sight. Myanmar is more famously known as Burma. Aung San Suu Kyi, the Nobel Peace Prize recipient is probably know as its most famous citizen by people outside Myanmar. The majority of people are very poor by western standard but are also among the most generous in the world. Friendly & often shy. Say Mingalaba, the word for hello & watch them smile. Some areas are subject to unrest & these areas are off-limits to tourists so check before venturing off the beaten track. Always follow a guide's advice. The country's fascinating traditional culture, emphatic landscape and Yangon, its charming capital make it a destination most of us will not want to miss out on.

Warning: Many governments advise aganst travelling to areas of Myanmar bordering Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand because of military clashes, ethnic conflict, banditry and unmarked land mines; or to Rakhine State because of civil unrest.



Brief History

Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar (or Burma, as it's mostly called throughout history, hence that name here) as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state. The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, and Halingyi. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Myanmar. Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC. To the north another group of people, the Bamar (Mranma/Myanma), also began to settle in the area. By 849, they had founded a powerful kingdom centred on the city of Pagan (spelled Bagan today) filling the void left by the Pyu. The Pagan Kingdom officially ruled between 1044 and 1278. From that time onwards to the late 18th century, there were several periods of smaller kingdoms, including Ava, Hanthawaddy Pegu, Rakhine Kingdom, Arakan and several Shan States. Ava, Pegu and sometimes the Shan States were almost constantly in war durning this centuries.

Soon after the fall of Ava in 1752, a new dynasty rose in Shwebo to challenge the power of Hanthawaddy. Over the next 70 years, the highly militaristic Konbaung dynasty went on to create the largest Burmese empire, second only to the empire of Bayinnaung. From 1760 to 1776, Burma and Siam were involved in continuous warfare. In 1760, Alaungpaya captured the Tenasserim coast. King Hsinbyushin sacked Ayutthaya in 1767, and successfully defended against China's invasions between 1765 and 1770. The Siamese used the Burmese preoccupation with China to recover their lost territories by 1770, and in addition, went on to capture Lan Na in 1776, ending over two centuries of Burmese suzerainty over the region.
The British began conquering Burma in 1824. For a period of sixty-two years, Burma was under British control. Burma was administered as a province of British India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony.
During World War II, Burma became a major frontline in the Southeast Asian Theatre. The British administration collapsed ahead of the advancing Japanese troops, jails and asylums were opened and Rangoon was deserted except for the many Anglo-Burmese and Indians who remained at their posts. By July 1945, the British had retaken the country. Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, also served in the British Burma Army.

On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, it did not become a member of the Commonwealth. Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military coup d'état. He ruled for nearly 26 years and pursued policies under the rubric of the Burmese Way to Socialism. Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalized or brought under government control.
The name of the country changed from the official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989. Constant social, economical, political and natural problems have occurred throughout the last tens of years.

In 2016 the National League for Democracy won control of the government but under the constitution, the military retained a measure of power, holding key ministries.




Myanmar's geography is very diverse. Most people live along or near the Irrawaddy River Valley that flows roughly down the centre of the country. Myanmar is much larger than just the Irrawaddy River Valley. In the far mountainous north, the climate is similar to Tibet though less severe or as cold, while the south is covered by dense jungle. The centre is a large plain, much like the savannah of Africa. On the far eastern and western sides of the country there are dense mountainous jungles where remote minority groups live. Then there is a long part of land going much further south than Yangon, where there are still island nomads living a traditional life. Myanmar shares international borders with Thailand, India, Laos, China and Bangladesh.







Sights and Activities


Pagoda, Bagan

Pagoda, Bagan

© Winkekatze

Bagan is a stunning ancient temple city on the Irrawaddy River that rivals almost all other ancient cities in Asia. Bagan sits on the banks of the Ayerwaddy River and is home to the largest area of Buddhist temples, pagodas, stupas and ruins in the world many of which dating back to the 11th and 12th centuries. Although 'only' 2,200 remain today, there once were an estimated 13,000! Ananda is Bagan's holiest temple and dates back to 1091.

Inle Lake

Inle Lake is one of the best sights in Myanmar. It is the second largest lake in Myanmar and is framed on both sides with stunning mountains. It is a great place to enjoy hikes and the sights of village life on the water. Read more about this stunning place in the Inle Lake article.


Although not as popular compared to many other South East Asian countries regarding its beach life, there are some fine long and white beaches like the ones around Ngapali in western Rakhine State. It is still relatively low key with a good choice of budget and midrange places. Recently though, several more upmarket hotels cater to the more wealthy people. Getting there either requires flying or taking a long bumpy bus ride. Still, it is worth the effort because it still is quiet compared to other countries and has excellent seafood.

Different journeys

harbour along the ayeyarwaddy

harbour along the ayeyarwaddy

© matthi

Travelling by boat along the mighty Irrawaddy River is a travel experience which is one of a kind. The best and most travelled part is between Mandalay and Bhamo more to the north. Another experience is to take the train between Mandalay and Lashio via Hsipaw, and Pyin Oo Lwin. The trains are slow & crowded but very cheap & fascinating .. like the boat trip, it gives you an insight into the everyday life of local people. The Pyin Oo Lwin to Hsipaw section includes the famous Gokteik Viaduct.

Other sights and activities

  • Mount Popa - 50 kilometres from Bagan, is a peak topped by gold stupas. Reaching it requires you to go up 777 steps on your bare feet.
  • Kyaikhto - 160 kilometres from Yangon, is famous for its golden boulder and pagoda balancing over a cliff.
  • Minority people near Kengtung - Ann and Akha people, in the northeast of the country.
  • Sri Kittara - ancient sight near Pyay, halfway between Yangon and Mandalay.



Events and Festivals

Manaw Festival

Taking place in January every year, the Manaw Festival is an important event for the Kachin to honor the gods, appeasing them to ensure a good harvest. Dressed in colorful traditional costumes, headgear and adorned with jewelry and beads, the festival includes many traditional sporting events such as tug-of-war, dancing and music.

Mahamuni Ceremony

This is one of the most important religious celebrations in Mandalay held annually in February. Lasting two days, visitors from all over Myanmar come to the Mahamuni Pagoda to pay their respects and hear the monks chant. In the evening, stalls selling food and souvenirs are set-up and traditional Zats (dance and song) can be seen.

Myanmar New Year

The New Year’s festivities also known as the Water Festival, is an important event that takes place in April. Similar to the Songkran festival in Thailand, the day involves a lot of water throwing, so be prepared to get wet. The water is thought to purify, making it a wonderful time to visit the temples to make offerings.

Thadingyut Light Festival

Taking place on the full moon in October (usually second or third week), the Thadingyut Light Festival is a beautiful Myanmar event. It involves three days of illumination with candles lit throughout the night. The festival pays respect to the elderly, where the young give gifts to older family members.

Phaung Daw Oo Pagoda Festival

The biggest annual festival at Inle Lake is the Phaung Daw Oo Pagoda festival in October. The royal barges are floated on the lake, each carrying an important Buddha image. The highlight is the Shan boating race, especially to see the Shan's usual leg-rowing technique.

Elephant Dance Festival

Every year in October, men inside life-size paper mậché elephants try to perform the dance in Myanmar. The festival takes place in Kyaukse just south of Mandalay. Other competitions take place such as the best decorated elephant.

Hot Air Balloon Festival

Held annually in November, paper balloons of all sizes are made and filled with hot air to be launched into the night sky. They illuminate the horizon and are a wonderful photo opportunity. During the day, visitors can marvel at the beautifully decorated paper balloons made in all shapes, such as elephants, horses and more.

Tazaungdaing Full moon Festival

This important Buddhist festival which takes place in November every year is a time when locals donate robes, umbrellas and alms bowls to monks. Most residents participate in this religiously important day by spending the night at a temple.




Most of Myanmar (except the mountains in the north) has a hot and humid tropical climate. Temperatures are well above 30 °C during the day and mostly around 20 °C at night. Temperatures from mid March to May can reach 40 °C and even a bit more in Mandalay, making this time rather unpleasant for visiting most places except the mountains. This time is often called the hot dry season. From June to October is rainy season. There is massive amounts of rainfall this time of year which can make travel unpleasant. At the same time most of the more popular sights will be empty and hotels will have plenty of vacancies. If someone is hardcore loner this would their time to travel. The wettest places along the coast receive a massive 1,400 mm during the wettest months. The best time to visit is during the cool dry season which is November to February. During this period there is still warm and pleasant weather. It usually is dry and rather sunny during these months. Some places even can get chilly at night, especially more inland or in the mountains. On long bus rides bring some warm cloths for the night.



Getting There

By Plane

Yangon International Airport (RGN) is where most travellers start their trip in Myanmar. It has good connections in the region but does not have direct flights from North America or Australia, but a few direct flights from Milan in Europe.

Myanmar Airways International, the international airline of Myanmar, flies to Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. While they do not operate any aircraft, they are on code share with Jetstar Asia, Malaysia Airlines, Qatar Airways and Thai Airways. The Bangkok-Yangon route, the most commonly used one, is serviced by Thai Airways and AirAsia.

Other international airlines flying into this airport include Air India, Air Bagan, Air China, Air Mandalay, Bangkok Airways, China Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hong Kong Express Airways, Singapore Airlines and Vietnam Airlines.

There are also connections to Mandalay, for example from Bangkok or Chiang Mai in Thailand and Kunming in China.

By Land

Myanmar has land borders with five different countries, namely China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Laos. As of 2013, restrictions on foreigners entering via the Thai border have been lifted, and foreigners are free to travel overland from Thailand into the Burmese heartland provided their Burmese visa is in order. Entering Myanmar from the other land border crossings, though, is a different story. At the very least, you will need to apply for special permits in advance, and you may need to join a guided tour in order for the permit to be granted.

  • Thailand - Four border crossings exist between Myanmar and Thailand at Tachileik/Mae Sai, Myawaddy/Mae Sot, Ban Phunamron/Htee Kee and Kawthoung/Ranong. As of Jan 2017, all four border crossings are open to foreigners, and there are no restrictions on foreigners travelling into the Burmese heartland from the latter three. From Tachileik, travel beyond Keng Tung is not possible overland unless you are on a guided tour with a special permit. No visa-on-arrival is available though, so ensure that your Thai (if required) and Burmese visas are in order. The Myanmar E-Visa is now accepted at all those land crossings except for Htee Kee for entry, and you may exit at all four border crossings with it.
  • China - Foreigners can enter Myanmar at Lashio via Ruili (in Yunnan), although a permit (as well as a visa) and a guide are needed. You will most likely need to join an organized tour. As of Apr 2009, it is impossible for foreigners to cross over from Ruili, even for the day, without first getting a visa in Kunming, e.g., for a tour group. Crossing in the opposite direction is more difficult to arrange and details are uncertain; however, it's possible to fly from Mandalay to Kunming, and there's even a Chinese consulate that issues visas in Mandalay.
  • India - A land border crossing exists between India and Myanmar at Moreh/Tamu. There have been confirmed reports of travellers crossing into Myanmar from India (and vice-versa), with their own transport as well as with permits arranged in advance. It is no longer required to have a permit to visit the Indian state of Manipur, but an MTT permit is required to enter or leave Myanmar at Tamu. This permit was readily available from MTT in Yangon (who will require you to book a tour guide) or a number of other agencies (who will not) for USD 80-100 per person. Most agencies required 20 working days to arrange the permit (but in some cases can do it faster), and could have it delivered to the border so that you do not need to return to Yangon to collect it. As of Jan 2017, this permit is only available for entry and exit through the same border. However, people have been able to enter from India and exit to Thailand nevertheless, however not the other way around.
  • Laos - The Myanmar-Lao friendship bridge connects Shan State in Myanmar with Luang Namtha Province in Laos.
  • Bangladesh - it is not currently feasible to independently cross the border between Myanmar and Bangladesh.



Getting around



© ejgalang

Myanmar's infrastructure is in poor shape. As a result of the political situation, Myanmar had until recently been subject to trade sanctions from much of the western world, and this can cause problems for unwary travellers. Travel to certain regions is prohibited; for others, special permits must be obtained, and a guide/interpreter/minder may be mandatory - although whether these "guides" accompany you to look after you, or to keep you from going to places the government doesn't want you to see, is moot.

Restricted Areas
Much of Myanmar is closed to foreign travellers, and many land routes to far-flung areas are also closed (for example, to Mrauk U, Kalewa, Putao, Kengtung). Thus, while travellers can travel freely in the Bamar majority Burmese heartland, travel tends to be restricted or circumscribed in other places. In theory, any tourist can apply for a permit to visit any restricted area or to travel on any restricted land route. In practice, it is unlikely that any such permit will be issued in a reasonable amount of time, or at all. Permit requests can be made locally in some cases (for example, requests for the land route to Kalewa can be made in Shwebo) but, in most cases, the request has to be made in Yangon. Requests to visit restricted areas must be made at the MTT (Myanmar Travel and Tours) office in Yangon (Number 77-91, Sule Pagoda Rd, Yangon). Applications for local permits can often be made at a local MTT office or at a police station. As of writing this, local permits are available only for the following places & routes:

  • Kengtung - Tachilek. This used to be straightforward but the availability is now uncertain.
  • Mrauk U Chin/ Zomi village tours. Easily available in Mrauk U, but must visit with a guide. Your hotel or a local tour company can arrange this for you.
  • Myitkyina - Indawgyi Lake. Easily available in Myitkyina but must travel with a guide. Your hotel or a local tour company can arrange this for you.
  • Shwebo - Kalewa. A permit is necessary if going by road. It is uncertain whether one is required if going by boat.

All other permits must be obtained in Yangon. Permits for places like Putao are obtainable but need to be applied for well in advance. With many of the more far flung places, and places restricted to foreigners it is better to arrange your internal visa in advance.

By Plane

There are four domestic carriers; three private ones and one government-owned, with the latter being Myanma Airways (not to be confused with Myanmar Airways International). This one has a poor safety record and is better avoided. The other three airlines are Air Bagan, Air Mandalay and Yangon Airways. They all offer flights between the main airports of Yangon, Mandalay, Bagan and Heho (for Inle Lake) as well as flying to more remote places like Sittwe at the west coast, Kawthoung in the south (for onward travel to and from Thailand) and Kengtung (also for onward travel to and from Thailand).

By Train

Myanmar has an extensive and ancient rail network. Trains are slow, noisy, rocking left and right, leaving extremely punctual but than often delay on the trip. Electrical blackouts are becoming rare but nonetheless never assume that air conditioners, fans or the electrical supply itself will be working throughout the whole journey. Most trains have upper class and ordinary class. Ordinary class has wide open windows, benches and can be packed with locals transporting their goods. Upper class has upholstered chairs, fans and is less crowded. Be careful putting your head out of the window as it is very likely to be hit by a branch. Vegetation grows so close to the tracks that you normally find a good amount of shredded leaves on the seats. Tickets are cheap and tourists pay the same price as locals. But note that tourists still cannot buy tickets on the train. At smaller stations, you may have to seek the stationmaster or use an interpreter to buy a ticket. Your passport is required when purchasing.

A journey on a train is a great way to see the country and meet people. The rail journey from Mandalay, up hairpin bends to Pyin Oo Lwin, and then across the mountains and the famous bridge at Gokteik, is one of the great railway journeys of the world. Trains in lower Mandalay, Yangon-Pathein and Yangon-Mawlamyine, are little communities of their own with hawkers selling everything imaginable. Sleepers are available on many overnight express trains, although in the high season you may want to reserve a few days in advance. Tickets go on sale three days in advance. At some stations there is a separate counter for advance bookings, or even a separate building (e.g. in Yangon). Food service is available on the express in both directions between Yangon and Mandalay.

Except for the new bridge and rail line that connects Mawlamyine to points on the west side of the Salween River, the rail network is exactly the way it was in British times. The most used line is the 325 kilometre line from Yangon to Mandalay with several trains a day. It is the only double line in Myanmar, and also the only one that is competitive in time with buses. Note, that the fastest trains take 15 hours for the 385 kilometre run, an effective rate of 25 km/hour. A second line connects Yangon with Pyay, 9 hours for the 175 kilometre journey, with a branch heading off into the delta region town of Pathein. These tracks, the earliest constructed, are in poor shape. With the construction of the bridge across the Salween, it is now possible to go by train from Yangon to Mawlamyine , 8 hr for the 200 km journey, and on to Ye and Dawei. From Mandalay, trains continue on to Myitkyina in Kachin State, 350 kilometres in 24 hours, and to Lashio. There are also rail connections between Yangon-Bagan and Mandalay-Bagan, but bus or ferry are better alternatives: the 175 kilometres from Mandalay to Bagan takes 10 hours.

By Car

You can hire a private car and driver at reasonable rates to tour independently. The licensed guides at Schwedagon Paya in Yangon can arrange to have a driver with a car meet you at your hotel. Another way is to arrange for a car through a travel agency, though it can be quite expensive. You can "test" the driver and the car by driving around the city for 10 or 15 minutes. If you are satisfied, a departure date and time and per diem rates (inclusive of petrol) can be negotiated. Some guides are willing to travel with you to serve as interpreters.

Traffic moves on the right in Myanmar, but confusingly, Myanmar has a mixture of left- and right-hand-drive cars, with the majority of vehicles being right-hand-drive as a result of being second-hand imports from Japan or Thailand.

Road travel to tourist destinations is generally safe, although some roads may be rough. Highways are often 2-lane, and cars often pass one another recklessly. That being said, driving habits are not quite as aggressive as say, Vietnam. Allow two days to drive from Yangon to Bagan in fair weather. Pyay is a good stopover point. Allow a day to drive from Bagan to Inle Lake.

In cities, it is considered illegal to cross an amber light without stopping. Despite having crossed 3/4 of the way, you will be required to stop in the middle of the road and make your way back in reverse!

Accidents and fatalities are common. Night-time road travel is not recommended, and medical facilities are limited in rural areas. At government hospitals, bribes may be required for services. Make sure needles are new or carry your own. HIV is a major problem in Myanmar.

All taxis (and by extension all vehicles for transport of people and goods) have red/white licence plates, while private vehicles have a black/white. Tourist agency-owned cars have a blue/white licence plate.

By Bus

Buses of all types ply the roads of Myanmar. Luxury (relatively speaking) buses do the Mandalay-Yangon run while lesser vehicles can get travellers to other places. Fares are reasonable and in kyat and buses are faster than the trains. Many long distance buses assign seats, so it is best to book seats at least a day in advance. Because the roads are bad, avoid the rear of the bus and try to sit as far up front as you can. Long distance buses also have an extra jump seat that blocks the aisle and, because it is not well secured to the chassis, can be uncomfortable (which also means that there is no such thing as a side seat where taller travellers can stretch their legs). A window near the front of the bus is always the best option.

Even budget travellers will find themselves buying more tickets via their hotel or an agency rather than going to the bus company to buy it directly. Their offices are often located far from any tourist place and the cost of going there and back will most likely exceed the commission your hotel will get for selling you the ticket. Shop around and compare prices before buying your ticket as some vendors include a free pick-up from your hotel.

A scam about bus tickets seems to be currently popular in Yangon. While many make a stopover in Bago, they are told at their guesthouse or at the bus station it's not possible to buy tickets there in the direction to Mandalay. In a country where everything might be possible when it comes to transport, some people fall for this. Actually, this is not the case and tracking back to Yangon for a bus ticket up north is not necessary at all. Bago has a bus terminal with several bus offices. Buying your ticket at Bago might be slightly cheaper (depending upon your bargaining skills) and gives you more freedom for the rest of your journey.

By Pick-ups

Old pick-up trucks run everywhere in Myanmar, cheaply ferrying men, women, children, and monks from one place to another. The rear of the truck is converted into a canvas-covered sitting area with three benches, one on each side and one running along the centre of the truck (some smaller trucks have only two rows), and the running board is lowered and fixed into place providing room for six or more people to stand on (holding on to the truck frame). Pick-ups are ubiquitous in Myanmar and every town has a central point somewhere from where they depart to places both near and far. Tourists who go off the beaten track will find them indispensable because often the only alternative is an expensive taxi or private car.

The basics of pickups are fairly straightforward, wait till it is reasonably full before heading out. On well-travelled routes (Mandalay-Pyin U Lwin, for example), they fill up quickly and the journey is quick. On less well-travelled routes (Bhamo-Katha, for example), passengers arrive (early, usually around 06:00), mark their place, and then hang around drinking tea and chatting until the truck fills up. When the pick-up does get moving, it may linger or go out of its way in the hope of picking up more passengers. The inside of a pick-up can be hot and uncomfortable. Passengers, packed in like sardines, face away from the windows (which are tiny) and into the truck. Standing on the running board can be tiring and tough on the arms! On the other hand, the window side seat next to the driver is very comfortable and well-worth the little extra that you have to pay, so it is best to go early and reserve that seat.

By Boat

The most popular route for travellers is over the Ayerwaddy river from Mandalay to Bagan, which lasts between 10 and 15 hours, depending on the water levels and choice of boats. Remember that it is over 10 dollars cheaper to take the ferry from Bagan to Mandalay on the exact same boat.



Red Tape

Citizens of Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Philippines may enter Myanmar without a visa for a stay of up to 14 days, provided they enter by air. This 14 day stay is strictly not extendable for any reason. All other nationalities are required to apply for a visa in advance. Some additional restrictions, requirements or conditions may be applied to applications. Reports have included a need for a detailed itinerary, a detailed job history, etc. Be prepared for some unusual questions (either on the forms, or from the consulate staff) when applying for your visa.

Myanmar's E-Visa Online is fully operational as of September 2014. To apply for a Visa you need a digital photo of you (check requirements), $50 and provide an address in Myanmar. It takes up to 3 workdays and then an "Entry Visa Approval Letter to Myanmar" is emailed to you.

A same-day visa can be issued at the Myanmar Embassy in Bangkok. To get the visa the same day, you must tell the visa clerk that you are leaving tomorrow. They will issue your visa later that same day by 15:30, valid starting the date of issue.

The easiest way to get the visa is to apply through a travel agency in your home country. The form is simple and requires an ID photo or two. In Bangkok, it takes one or two business days. A standard application for a tourist visa requires: a completed visa form (available from the embassy), a completed arrival form (again, from the embassy), a photocopy of the photo page from your passport, two passport sized photos, the applicable fee (810 baht/USD24). In Hong Kong, you can get the visa by applying between 09:00-12:00, and picking it up after 15:00 on the following business day (your passport, 3 passport photos, business card / leave letter from your employer or student ID if you're a student, and application fee of HK$150/USD19).

Tourists visas are valid for 3 months. The visa is valid for a stay of up to four weeks (from date of entry), although you can overstay if you are willing to pay a USD3 a day fee when you leave. Employment is not allowed on a tourist visa, and working without proper authorisation runs you the risk of being arrested and deported. Successful applicants will also be issued an "Arrival Form", which will be stapled into your passport and must be presented on arrival in Myanmar, along with your passport containing the visa sticker.




See also Money Matters

The official currency is the kyat (pronounced ch-at), subdivided into 100 pya. Exchanging FECs (Foreign Exchange Certificates) is no longer necessary on arrival. When paying for tickets for trains, buses, planes and hotel rooms most people want US dollars instead of local currency. Many people will refuse to take local currency for those purchases.
Coins are K1, K5, K10, K50, K100, Banknotes come in denominations of 50 pyas, K1, K5, K10, K20, K50, K100, K200, K500, K1,000, K5,000.

When making purchases on the street or in smaller non-tourist shops people always want kyat. Therefore keep some kyat with you at all times while travelling in the country. Remember that kyat is a non tradable currency meaning that once you leave the country it is next to impossible to exchange it. Even if you could exchange kyat in another country the vendors would most likely give you the horrible official government rate.

The official exchange rate for kyat is set by the federal government and it does not reflect inflation. The official rate moves around 7 kyat to US$1. The black market rate moves around 1,500 to 2,500 kyat to US$1. Never exchange your money at banks or the airport because you will get very bad rate of 450 kyat to US$1 to 1,000 kyat to US$1. It is best to change money in Yangon because the rates get worse the further one travels from the largest city in the country. Try to change money at hotels and guesthouses or the Yangon jewelry market. Remember to check and count all bills. Some cities in the north give very good rates for Chinese RMB and not for USD. In general US$ are preferred over the EURO.




Work in Myanmar for foreigners is hard to come by. NGOs and other aid groups operate in the capital and remote rural areas but may require specific skill sets to hire you. Another option is European and Asian companies, mostly operating on a small scale. Teaching English is feasible in private schools but many foreigners have reported unreasonable contracts, such as withholding pay and refusing to pay those who resign early. Skip entirely the education ministry, which only hires citizens with teaching certification. If you would like to work and assist Burmese refugees certain NGOs work in neighbouring Thailand.




At this time it is almost impossible to study as a foreigner in Myanmar. This is because the government does not trust foreign students interacting with their students.




The official language of Myanmar is Burmese (known by the government as Myanmar). A majority of Burmese pronunciation is derived from the ancient language of Pali (at the time of the Buddha), but the language is a Sino-Tibetan language related to Chinese and hence tonal (word pitch matters) and analytic (most words are one syllable long). It is written using the Burmese script, based on the ancient Pali script. Bilingual signs (English and Burmese) are available in most tourist spots. Numbers often are also written in Burmese script.

There are also many other ethnic groups in Myanmar such as the Mon, Shan, Pa-O and many others who continue to speak their own languages. There is also a sizeable ethnic Chinese community mostly of Yunnan descent, most visible in the city of Mandalay, and many of whom speak Mandarin. Some areas are also home to various ethnic Indian communities who continue to speak various Indian languages. However, with the exception of the elderly, it is rare to find any locals who do not speak Burmese.

Myanmar is a former British colony, and as a result - and because English is still compulsory in kindergartens and primary schools - many Burmese understand at least some rudimentary English. Most well-educated upper class Burmese are fluent in English, while in the main cities like Yangon and Mandalay, many locals will know enough English for basic communication. Hotel and airline staff, as well as people working in the tourism industry generally speak an acceptable level of English. You may find more English spoken in Myanmar than in Thailand.




Eating in Myanmar is an interesting experience. The food is a blend of Indian, Thai, Chinese and local cuisine. Many smaller restaurants will serve either curry or noodles. If at a curry restaurant a metal tray will be brought to you with many small servings of different kinds of curry plus some bread and rice. Noodle restaurants will serve different kinds of noodle soup and more common the further north one travels. Many minority groups have there own cuisine that is very good and different from the traditional. Groups like the Shan are known throughout Myanmar for having amazing food.

There has always been a Chinese population in Myanmar and Chinese restaurants can be found in almost ever city in Myanmar, although there tends to more of them north of Mandalay. Most of the Chinese food is like southern Chinese food, although some spicier and saltier versions of Chinese food can be found as well. Chinese food can be a good switch after eating curry for several weeks straight.

If in one of the major cities or a tourist centre it always possible to find western food. Although not great it can be a good break and chance to remember home. The western food is almost always more expensive then the local food.

Typical Burmese dishes include:

  • Laphet thote - A salad of fermented tea leaves and a variety of nuts. It is commonly mixed with sliced lettuce, and is eaten with rice. The dish originally comes from Shan State.
  • Mohinga - A dish of rice vermicelli with fish gravy (orange in colour), usually accompanied by coriander and chilli powder. Its taste can range from sweet to spicy, and is usually eaten at breakfast. It is considered by many to be the national dish, and is widely available throughout the country, albeit in different styles in different regions.
  • Nan Gyi Thoke - A special dish of rice noodle salad with chicken sauce. It is mostly eaten in mid-Myanmar.
  • Onnokauswe - A dish of thicker noodles in a thick soup of coconut milk with chicken. It is served with a variety of condiments accompanying it, ranging from fried fruit fritters to solidified duck blood. "Khao soi"("noodle" in Burmese), often found on the streets of Chiang Mai, is derived from this Burmese counterpart. It is also comparable to the more spicier Laksa often found in peninsular SE countries like Malaysia and Singapore.

Snack Food

On the streets of any Myanmar town there will always be something cooking or being deep fried. Most of this is different kinds of snack food is extremely cheap. Some of the snack is very good. Make sure to try many different kinds of street snack food while in the country.




The major tourist areas have plenty of cheap hotels that range from US$7 to US$15. Due to hotels having to pay a government charge per person sharing a room with another person does not save lots of money. Therefore a US$15 room for a single will become a US$20 room for a double. If looking for luxury style lodging only the largest cities and largest tourist areas will have hotels for that market.

In many towns a few budget guesthouses will be very popular, with good reason, while the others will be unpopular for good reasons. It can be difficult to get a room at the more popular guesthouses. In smaller towns there might be only one hotel, but usually this hotel will have many different kinds of rooms to service all kinds of costumers. Almost all guesthouses include breakfast every morning, which is a nice bonus.

Unfortunately, the recent tourism boom in Myanmar has left its infrastructure struggling to cope with the increased numbers of visitors. Hotel rooms tend to sell out really fast, and those in popular tourist destinations often sell out months in advance. As a result of the lack of supply, prices have also increased substantially in recent times. Needless to say, you should make your hotel bookings way in advance of your planned trip to Myanmar in order not to be stranded when you arrive.

At the top-end, Myanmar has some excellent hotels including one or two great ones (The Strand in Yangon and Kandawgyi Palace Hotel in Yangon). The Myanmar government runs many hotels, including some beautiful colonial era ones (though not the two listed in the previous sentence). A percentage of all accommodation payments goes to the government, no matter where you choose to stay, and it is not possible to run a successful business in Myanmar without some relationship or payment arrangement with the military.





It will be hard to find any kind of international brand of spirits. Luckily for the boozer in all of us Myanmar has plenty of cheap domestic varieties of all kinds of beer and spirits. There is cheap local rum, whisky and vodka.

Although the cheapest bottles of spirits go for about 600 kyat they taste there value. These liquids might actually make you go blind. Some of the stuff that is a little more expensive, maybe around 1,000 to 2,000 kyat, are actually pretty good. The beer on the other hand is pretty good. There are a few brands that can be bought nationally such as Myanmar Beer and Mandalay Beer, which are pretty good. A 850 ml bottle will cost between 500 to 1,000 kyat depending on how far into the countryside one has travelled. There are also many local beers, which are cheaper and can be pretty good.


Do not drink the tap water ever! Only drink tea if it has been boiled and even then be hesitant. Bottle water is easy to buy and everywhere in the country.


Although it is possible to buy international soda brands like Coke and Pepsi they can be quite expensive because they have to be imported from Thailand. Luckily there are many domestic copy cat brands of soda to drink while in Myanmar, like Star Cola. Give these different kinds of drinks a chance and maybe a few them might grow on you. In general the local soda is extremely cheap and is served in the glass bottle that the restaurant will keep.




See also Travel Health

There are no vaccinations legally required to travel to Myanmar. There is one exception though. You need a yellow fever vaccination if you have travelled to a country (7 days or less before entering Myanmar) where that disease is widely prevalent.

It's a good thing to get your vaccinations in order before travelling to Myanmar. The general vaccination against Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP) is recommended. Also a hepatitis A vaccination is recommended and when travelling longer than 2 weeks also typhoid.

If you are staying longer than 3 months or have a particular risk (travelling by bike, handling of animals, visits to caves) you might consider a rabies vaccination. Vaccination against Tuberculosis as well as hepatitis B are also sometimes recommended for stays longer than 3 months.

Malaria is prevalent in the country below 1,000 metres. Don't underestimate this tropical disease and take precautions. Buy repellent (preferably with 50% DEET), and sleep under a net. Dengue sometimes occurs as well.

Finally, other possible health issues include diarrhea and other general travellers' diseases like motion sickness. Watch what you eat and drink and in case you get it, drink plenty of fluids (to prevent dehydration) and bring ORS.

There are no western level hospitals in Myanmar. For any emergency requiring surgery the only option is to evacuated to Bangkok. Do not trust the local hospitals with anything more then a minor problem.




See also Travel Safety

In areas that travellers around allowed in Myanmar are very safe. As a foreigner, the most common crime you should be worried about is petty theft, so keep your belongings secured. There is very little crime and the traffic although crazy is not as wild as some neighboring countries. There are still some areas with active insurgents, especially in the north eastern part of the country. These areas of Myanmar are closed to all foreigners.



Keep Connected


Internet is now widely and cheaply available in Yangon, Mandalay, and Bagan, but more limited elsewhere. However access can be slow although now unrestricted. Rates are around 300 kyat/hour in Yangon and 1,000-3,000 kyat/hour elsewhere. Some hotels, although rare, allow free access to the internet.
The government records screenshots every five minutes from PCs in Internet cafés to monitor Internet usage. If you don't want your privacy violated in this way, save your surfing for Thailand or wherever you head next.


See also International Telephone Calls

Myanmar's country code is 95.

International phone calls can be arranged at the Central Telephone & Telegraph Office at the corner of Ponsodan and Mahabandoola Streets in Yangon. International Direct Dial calls are also possible from most hotels and at many public call offices (often a phone in a shop), but they are expensive, e.g., a call to the US costs USD6–7 per min.

The MPTGSM mobile phone network is provided by the Myanmar Government's Post and Telecommunication agency. This works on the GSM900 band, so is visible to multi-band GSM phones. Roaming is available onto MPT's GSM 900 network, subject to agreements between operators; check with your operator before you leave to be sure. Unfortunately, MPT only has international roaming agreements with operators from a limited number countries and territories. Nevertheless, if your own mobile telephone can detect the MPT GSM network, then you may be able to buy a USD20 SIM card which will work for 28 days.

As of October 2014, Telenor and Ooredoo, two international companies, have entered the market. Sim cards are cheap and widely available (1500 kyats for a Telenor sim). Nevertheless, connectivity can still be limited to urban centres, Yangon and Mandalay in particular. Telenor seems to have a better connection and plans to improve nets massively in the next years. Although MPT has the widest coverage, it is also the most expensive.


International mail out of Myanmar is reportedly quite efficient, despite what some hotels might tell you.


Quick Facts

Myanmar flag

Map of Myanmar


Military junta
Buddhism, Islam, Christianity
Calling Code
Local name
Myanma Naingngandaw


as well as hasbeen (6%), Peter (2%), dr.pepper (1%), joffre (1%), Hien (1%), Sander (<1%), Budai (<1%), Lisada (<1%)

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